Monday, August 24, 2020
UPS Solutions Essays UPS Solutions Paper UPS Solutions Paper What sort of Information and Services does the site accommodate people, Small Business and Large Business? Rundown these administrations. LIPS Trade Direct or Automated Shipment Processing. Clarify how you or your business would profit by the administration. LIPS gives parcel of administrations where the people, private ventures or huge organizations profit by their administrations. UPS conveys bundles like sends and different archives to individuals and association all around the globe. LIPS through site gives the accompanying administrations demonstrated underneath for the people, little and enormous organizations. Data about delivery of bundles ;LIPS Trade Direct (Air, Ocean, Cross Border) ;Tracking Freight (Air, Ocean, Ground) ; Store areas Individuals The site gives parcel of data and administrations that are valuable for the people when they need to dispatch their sends, bundles the nation over or around the world. For instance if an individual needs to convey a bundle quickly without going to UPS and this ovule be the correct answer for the person to utilize the site. People can make a shipment, ascertain time and cost, plan a pickup and discover the UPS areas close by. People can do this by utilizing the PC just as with the cell phone. LIPS permits the people o track their shipment by different methods by utilizing the track by number, track by reference, and track by email and by SMS following. It permits the clients to follow on continuous premise by utilizing the site. Little and Large Businesses. 2. Go to the Business Solution segment of the LIPS site. Peruse the LIPS business arrangements by classification, (for example, shipment conveyance, returns or worldwide exchange) and compose a portrayal of the considerable number of administrations LIPS offered for the classifications. UPS Returns Manage Returns Better and Improve Customer Experience Turn your profits procedure into an upper hand with the assistance of an industry leaderserve your clients better and make an incentive with smoothed out returns the board and opposite coordinations through SIPS, With UPS Returns, you increase more prominent control and perceivability, so youre never amazed by an approaching bring shipment back. That point of view can expand your effectiveness, let you respond all the more rapidly, and emphatically sway your main concern. Your clients anticipate dependable returns, and addressing their requirements can build their unwaveringness to your business. LIPS Returns can support you: ; Ensure consistence by controlling rate and cost of inbound shipments ; Minimizes mixed up return shipments to an inappropriate stockrooms or fix focuses ; Create and convey business solicitations with return marks to universal clients ; Forecast volume and alter staffing around inbound returns ; Link shipment data straightforwardly into your client assistance or distribution center tasks ; Maximize quick recuperation of high-esteem products, before they become old ; Your organization isn't charged for the transportation off Returns bundle until it is conveyed. Transportation Packages Four Easy Steps to Preparing your Package It can be energizing when you get a bundle, however frustrating it the substance re in under impeccable shape, Well tell you the best way to appropriately box substance and name bundles when you transport so your bundle substance show up in great condition. Follow these four stages: ; Choose a container sufficiently able to hold the substance. That implies it shouldnt have tears, tears, twists, or other harm. You can utilize your own case or UPS bundling supplies Ideally, youll need to utilize another ridged box. ; Select and utilize legitimate padding materials for bundle substance. Wrap things independently and encompass them with bubble sheeting and recyclable or froth free fill materials. Substance ought not straightforwardly contact within the delivery box. ; Securely seal your bundle. Use pressure-touchy plastic or nylon fortified tape that is in any event 2 ninja. 08 CM wide. ;Appropriately mark your bundle. Incorporate full transportation directions, for example, postal codes, loft numbers or Other data that will help with conveyance. LIPS internet transportation can assist you with finishing your name. Try to put the name on the bundle and evacuate any old names or cross out old markings. Secure the mark and abstain from setting it on box creases or tape. Universal Services Reaching new clients and suppliers universally is simpler with an accomplished worldwide transportation master like LIPS. Regardless of whether you need a practical delivery choice or the quickest conceivable help for earnest shipments, we can give an answer for universal shipments of any size. Is Speed What You Need? For your shipments that need to show up as fast as could be expected under the circumstances, LIPS offers on-time express administrations, normally with alternatives for morning or end of day conveyance. Time in travel regularly extends from one to three days relying upon the inception and goal nations. Need an Economical Solution? For less-critical shipments, even those that require solid, day-unmistakable conveyance, we have administrations that offer a great option for your Time in travel commonly extends from two to five days, contingent upon source and goal. Establishing a decent first connection is simple with world-class LIPS administrations working for you. Great impressions mean more customers in new markets for your business, and quicker development around the globe. 3. Clarify how the site helps UPS accomplish a few or the entirety Of the vital business targets we depict. What might be the effect of UPS s business if this site.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
ADP 7-0/ADRP 7-0 Training Units and Developing Leaders Paper What is operational preparing area is the preparation exercises organizationsundertake while at home station, at move battle preparing focuses, duringjoint works out, at activation focuses, and keeping in mind that operationally sent Whats is self-advancement preparing area is arranged, objective arranged learning thatreinforces and grows the profundity and expansiveness of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s information base,self-mindfulness, and situational mindfulness; supplements institutional andoperational learning; upgrades proficient ability; and meets personalobjectives. Whats is The Army standards of unit preparing ? Commandants and different pioneers are liable for preparing.? Noncommissioned officials train people, groups, and little groups.? Train to standard.? Train as you will battle.? Train while working.? Train essentials first.? Train to create flexibility.? Comprehend the operational condition.? Train to continue.? Train to keep up.? Direct multiechelon and simultaneous preparing. What is Train to Standard Units consistently train to the standard built up for every person and aggregate taskWhen no standard exists, the officer sets up one and the nexthigher leader supports it. What is Train as You Will Fight Ã¢â¬Å"Train as you will fightÃ¢â¬ implies preparing under a normal operationalenvironment for the mission. What is Train While Operating Preparing proceeds with when units are conveyed or when leading every day activities. For what reason must you Train Fundamentals First Units at each echelon must ace the essentials expected to achieve theirmission. Essentials incorporate fundamental soldiering, the Warrior Tasks, fight drills,marksmanship, wellness, and military word related forte proficiencies that supportthe abilities of the unit. For what reason do Leaders Train to Develop Adaptability Powerful pioneers comprehend that change is inescapable in any operationalenvironment. An opportunity to respond to change can be short. Versatility comes fromtraining under unpredictable, evolving conditions, with insignificant data accessible tomake choices. For what reason should you Understand The Operational Environment An operational situation builds up the conditions for preparing. The conditions are drawn from the operational variablesÃ¢â¬known as PMESII-PT What is Train to Sustain Preparing gets ready units and people to be flexible. Preparing must get ready unitsand Soldiers for the pressure of activities. For what reason do you Train to Maintain Units must direct support to guarantee gear is useful and availablefor the lead of preparing and for mission achievement. Upkeep preparing is a basic piece of the unit preparing plan. What is Conduct Multiechelon and Concurrent Training Multiechelon preparing is a preparation procedure that takes into consideration the simultaneoustraining of more than one echelon on various or reciprocal assignments. It improves preparing time for subordinates during higher unit preparing occasions What are the PRINCIPLES OF LEADER DEVELOPMENT ? Show others how its done.? Create subordinate pioneers.? Make a learning domain for subordinate pioneers.? Train pioneers in the craftsmanship and study of mission order.? Train to create versatile pioneers.? Train pioneers to think fundamentally and innovatively.? Train your pioneers to know their subordinates and their families. What is Lead by Example Great pioneers comprehend they are good examples for other people and mirror the ideal chief qualities Who will Develop Subordinate Leaders Pioneers have the obligation regarding creating subordinate pioneers. It is one of their most significant capacities What is *institutional preparing area? The ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s institutional preparing and instruction framework, which essentially includestraining base focuses and schools that give starting preparing and subsequentprofessional military training for Soldiers, military pioneers, and Army regular folks. What is THE ROLE OF THE COMMANDER UNDERSTANDVISUALIZEDESCRIBEDIRECTLEADASSESS What is a strategic undertaking speaks to an errand a unit could perform dependent on its structure, equipment,manning, and table of association and hardware/table of circulation and remittances strategic. A crucial assignment list is an assemblage of strategic undertakings What is MDMP MILITARY DECISIONMAKING PROCESS What are the means of MDMP ? Stage 1 Ã¢â¬ Receipt of Mission? Stage 2 Ã¢â¬ Mission Analysis? Stage 3 Ã¢â¬ Course of Action Development? Stage 4 Ã¢â¬ Course of Action Analysis (War Game)? Stage 5 Ã¢â¬ Course of Action Comparison? Stage 6 Ã¢â¬ Course of Action Approval? Stage 7 Ã¢â¬ Orders Production What does ADP 5-0 spread? An: Operations Process 2. Q. What does the Operations Process comprise for the Army? A: The Operations Process comprises the ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s see on arranging, getting ready, executing, and evaluating tasks 3. Q. What does the Operations Process represent? An: It represents the complex, ever-changing, and unsure nature of tasks and perceives that a military activity is preeminent a human endeavor What is the ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s Framework for Exercising Mission Command? A: The Operations Process What are the Major Command exercises performed during Operations? 1.Planning2.Preparation3.Executing4.Assessing What is Planning? A: The craftsmanship and study of understanding a circumstance, imagining an ideal future, and spreading out successful methods of realizing that future What is Preparing? A: Those exercises performed by units and Soldiers to improve their capacity to execute an activity What is Execution? A: Putting an arrangement without hesitation by applying battle capacity to achieve the mission What is Assessing? A: The constant assurance of the advancement toward achieving an assignment, making an impact, or accomplishing a goal How do Commanders utilize the Operations Process? A: Through the help of their Staff, Commanders utilize the Operations Process to drive the theoretical and nitty gritty arranging important to comprehend, picture, and portray their operational condition; settle on and articulate choices; and direct, lead, and evaluate military activities What are the four Principles that control the Operations Process? A: 1. Officers drive the Operations Process 2. Apply basic and innovative reasoning 3. Manufacture and keep up situational understanding4. Support cooperation and dialoge What stumbles upon consummation of the underlying request? An: arranging proceeds as pioneers overhaul the arrangement dependent on changing conditions What is the StaffÃ¢â¬â¢s job during the Operations Process? A: to help officers with getting circumstances, settling on and executing choices, controlling activities, and surveying progress During the Operations Process, what does Mission Command require? An: a situation of common trust and shared comprehension among administrators, staffs, and subordinates I don't get it's meaning to Understand Something? A: to get a handle on its temperament and centrality What is an Operational Environment? An: impacts that influence the work of capacities and bear on the choices of the administrator What is the CommanderÃ¢â¬â¢s Intent? A: reasonable and succinct articulation of the motivation behind the activity and the ideal military end express that bolsters strategic, gives center to the staff, and enables subordinate and supporting leaders to act to accomplish the commanderÃ¢â¬â¢s wanted outcomes moving forward without any more requests, in any event, when the activity doesn't unfurl as arranged What does the Acronym CCIR rely on? A: CommanderÃ¢â¬â¢s Critical Information Requirements What are the two parts of CCIRÃ¢â¬â¢s? A: benevolent power data necessities and need knowledge prerequisites What does the Acronym EEFI depend on? An: Essential Elements of Friendly Information What does the Acronym PMESII-PT represent? A: the eight interrelated operational factors: political, military, financial, social, data, framework, physical condition, and time What does the Acronym METT-TC represent? A: strategic, landscape and climate, troops and bolster accessible, time accessible, and common contemplations What are the six Mission Variables? A: strategic, territory and climate, troops and bolster accessible, time accessible, and common contemplations (METT-TC) What does the Acronym TLP depend on? A: Troop Leading Procedures (TLP) What are a portion of the 17 Mission Preparation Activities? 1. Proceed to facilitate and direct liaison2. Start data assortment 3. Start security activities 4. Start troop development 5. Start sustainment arrangements 6. Start organize arrangements 7. Oversee territory 8. Get ready territory 9. Direct affirmation brief
Monday, July 20, 2020
Explaining The Nursing NMC Code Of Conduct Nursing plays a vital role in health care serving as a means of the care delivery and linking a patient with the system. In this vein, nursing is regarded as a synonym of caring with the care carried out in an ethnically decisive way (Lawson Peate, 2009). When addressing, caring for and implementing the prescribed treatment to a patient, nursing relies on ethical principles along with the industry-accepted standards of care. The duty of care legally enforced in nursing has blurred the lines between healthcare law and ethics. Thus, law embodies a variety of ethical concepts, including informed consent, patient rights, access to care, confidentiality, withholding and withdrawing care and postcode prescribing (Hyde, 2008). In addition to ethical requirements, nursing is a moral and human endeavour, as it exposes nurses to various healthcare situations, the resolution of which implies consideration of the moral aspect rather than a medical one. Given evidence cited above, nursing has been historically bound with the notion of duty. The duty of care has remained pivotal in the present-day nursing because of the intrinsic association between concepts of rights and duties (Beckwith Franklin, 2007). In other words, once the duty is established, a patient is eligible for care, which imposes both a legal and moral responsibility on a nurse to carry out and facilitate care delivery. Therefore, nursing activities and performance require control for compliance with healthcare ethics and morale. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) is the Parliament-assigned organisation responsible for protecting the public with high standards of care provided to patients and clients by nurses and midwives. In this respect, this regulatory body seeks to identify and determine the standards of professional conduct and enforcing healthcare professionals to implement these standards in their daily practice and routine. Ethics and honesty represent the core values of the NMC framework (Lawson Peate, 2009). The NMC Code of Professional Conduct is the core legally enforced ethical guideline for nursing. It sets for high standards of care to be demonstrated during professional endeavours expecting high level of compliance among all practitioners. Indeed, the initial code of professional conduct was introduced by the UKCC in line with the Nurses, Midwives and health Visitors Act (1979). The content of the ethical framework was further expanded by the UKCC Scope of Professional Practice released in 1992 and the Guidelines for Professional Practice of 1996 (Woolrich, 2008). In 2002, the NMC developed and launched a code of professional conduct to cover contents of the three documents, thus, setting a uniform guideline for professional ethics and standards of care. Having established the sole authority to oversee and regulate the nursing practice, the NMC updated the guideline of professional ethics in 2004 (Hyde, 2008). Along with the reviewed and expanded content of the ethical framework, t he document received a new title â" NMC Code of Professional Conduct: Standards for Performance and Ethics. Another update took place in 2008 to rename the guideline into The Code: Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics for Nurses and Midwives (Woolrich, 2008). Statements and standards outlined by the code of professional conduct aim at reinforcing the concept of duty to align the nursing practice and the performed activities with the notion of care (Wilkinson, 2008). Hence, the NMC Code is fundamental for safeguarding the public health and well-being in terms of the nursing care received. Moreover, principles of the NMC Code rooted in healthcare law and basic healthcare values lay down the ground for effective practice. As already indicated above, the code of professional nursing conduct has been regularly reviewed and updated to reflect the current patient needs and preferences in the ethics, conduct and performance of nurses in the contemporary health care. The NMC Code relies on the key principles that align professional responsibilities of nurses with human rights to form an ethical aspect of professional behaviour that is likely to meet expectations of the community regarding the role of health care (Beckwith Franklin, 2007). By dist inguishing the moral dimension of the nursing practice, the code emphasises public protection and individual nurseâs accountability for the behaviour and care carried out in support of patient health and well-being.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
While there are different types of bone cancers, the symptoms for each are generally about the same with the severity varying with the size and location of the tumor (Upstate Medical University, 2014). The most common symptom is pain, which, in the case of cancers such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and EwingÃ¢â¬â¢s sarcoma, may occur in the arms, legs, and knees. The pain may start out as being infrequent and only occur at night or when the bone is in use. Over time, as the tumor grows, the pain will increase and become more persistent. The pain is often accompanied by swelling and sometimes even a palpable lump, depending on the location. Fractures can also result due to weakened and fragile bone where malignancy is present (American Cancer Society, 2015). As the cancer progresses, other possible symptoms include fatigue, unexplained weight loss, fever, night sweats, and trouble breathing (Upstate Medical University, 2014). If bone cancer is suspected, x-rays can be taken which may show key characteristics of a specific type of cancer. Osteosarcoma can often be identified by its classic Ã¢â¬Å"sunburstÃ¢â¬ pattern in radiographs. What makes up the pattern is a soft tissue mass accompanied by horizontal bony spicules extending out through the mass (Eisenberg and Johnson, 2012, p. 124). Chondrosarcoma can be seen on radiographs as endosteal scalloping with destruction of the compact layer of bone, and often contains a splotchy or shapeless calcification. EwingÃ¢â¬â¢s sarcoma isShow MoreRelatedSymptoms and Treatment of Bone Cancer792 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesOverview Cancer has hundreds of different types. One of these types is bone cancer. Like most other types of cancer, if bone cancer is not found and treated, it can kill you. Bone cancer is defined as when you get cancer in your boneÃ¢â¬â¢s cells. There are two different types of bone cancer. It can be primary or secondary. Primary bone cancer originates in your bones and has several subtypes. However, secondary bone cancer is when the cancer spreads from other parts of your body (such as your lungs)Read MoreThe Bare Bones Of Cancer1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Bare Bones of Cancer A silent killer of today is cancer; there are many different forms of cancer. For each different style of cancer, there are many unanswered questions about cancer, even if most of them are currently unknown to us. Cancer is a debilitating and often fatal disease, but thanks to current medical research, knowing the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and planning the treatments have become much easier. There is not one known direct cause to developing bone cancer. HoweverRead MoreBone Cancer1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBone Cancer Bone cancer is a disease that occurs on or inside a bone. Usually, bone cancer involves a tumor filled with abnormal cells that will occasionally appear on the exterior of the bone. Similar to other types of cancer, bone cancer can be life threatening. Doctors are not completely sure what causes cancer, but they continue the search to find an answer. There are five different types of bone cancer that can affect people from ages 10-60 years old. Bone cancer can occur in any bone in theRead MoreThe Treatment Of Bone Cancer Essay1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe subject of bone cancer because I have had a couple instances of cancer in my family. My father died in his thirties from a rare form of lymphoma when I was eight years old and my maternal grandfather died from leukemia in his eighties when I was twenty-eight years old. The same grandfather had colon cancer in his mid-fifties. This resulted in surgery to remove most of his colon which lead to the use a colostomy bag for the remainin g part of his life. I know that some forms of cancer are caused byRead MoreMedical Treatments For Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer803 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyour cancer but can help slow down its growth and relieve symptoms such as pain. Who can have palliative radiotherapy? Palliative radiotherapy is one of the treatments used to slow down the growth of cancer and control symptoms in men with advanced prostate cancer. Advanced prostate cancer is not curable but treatment can keep it under control for months or years. Having advanced prostate cancer means that the cancer has spread from the prostate, to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer can spreadRead MoreExploring The Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, And Statistics Of Chondrosarcoma And Osteosarcoma1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Bone Cancer Exploring the Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, and Statistics of Chondrosarcoma and Osteosarcoma Alexus Edwards Gabrielle Newton Ms. Knetter - A1 Ronald Wilson Reagan College Preparatory IB High School Bone cancer is an uncommon disease that typically develops in the arm and leg bones (Mayo Clinic, 2015). Every year, there is an estimated 2,970 diagnoses made in the United States between all ages and genders (Cancer.net, 2014). The two most common types are osteosarcomaRead MoreTaking a Look at Osteogenic Sarcoma730 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThis cancer is a bone cancer that attack the bones, especially large bones. This cancer is named osteogenic sarcoma(Osteosarcoma) for medical term (Ã¢â¬Å"OsteosarcomaÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Osteosarcoma mostly affects people under 25 years old, and it can affect old people but it is really rare(Ã¢â¬Å"Osteosarcoma: An Introduction.Ã¢â¬ , 2012). When this cancer attacks, it grows bones, and any type of bone (Ã¢â¬Å"Bone cancerÃ¢â¬ ,2013). This cancer is an ancient disease that we started to recognize in 1805. Most of the symptoms are onRead MoreLeukemia1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLeukemia is a type of blood cancer that begins in the bone marrow. Types of leukemia- acute or chronic: Acute leukemia gets worse very fast and may make you feel sick right away. Chronic leukemia gets worse slowly and may not cause symptoms for years. And Lymphocytic or myelogenous: lymphocytic affects the white blood cells called lymphocytes and myelogenous affects the white blood cells called myelocytes. Sign and symptoms: fever/ night sweats, headaches, bruising/bleeding, bone or joint pain, swollenRead MoreThe Work Of Living With A Rare Cancer : Multiple Myeloma1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMultiple myeloma (MM) is a rare life-threatening cancer that affects the white blood cells known as plasma cells that are found in the soft, spongy tissue at the center of the bones, called bone marrow. The plasma cells are useful in fighting infections by producing antibodies that recognize and attack germs. The plasma cells are transformed into malignant myeloma cells when there are high levels of M proteins or better known as the production of abnormal antibodies from a result of myeloma cellsRead MoreLeukemia And Its Effects On Cancer Development971 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshave a 58.5% chance of survival in the next 5 years (National Cancer Institute, 2015). Leukemia is a group of cancers that originate from bone marrow and create cancerous blood cells that overcrowd healthy blood cells within th e bone marrow. (National Cancer Institute, 2014). Compared to other types of cancer, leukemia is considered to be relatively rare (National Cancer Institute, 2015). Despite this, leukemia is unlike other cancers due to the fact that there are over a dozen different types of
COMMENTARY Free Speech in the Digital World under Threat? Kirsty Hughes We are at a moment where the digital world can go either way Ã¢â¬â it can become a space of genuine free expression, one enjoyed by ever larger numbers of people or it can become a controlled and monitored space. Like any battle for free speech and fundamental rights, governments and other major players Ã¢â¬â in this case big web companies and internet service providers Ã¢â¬â must be held to account and challenged to defend our rights. T e digital world continues to open up huge opportunities for communication, interaction, sharing views and exchanging information across and within borders. We will write a custom essay sample on Free Speech in the Digital World Under Threat? or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is even rather dated to say we are all our own publishers now, we can all be citizen journalists Ã¢â¬â though we are and can be. And as millions more people in the next couple of years join that digital world as the price of smart phones fall, the digital revolution is surely not over. Or is it? Are Governments Hardwired to Snoop and Censor? Kirsty Hughes (hugheskirsty@gmail. om) is with the Index on Censorship, London, United Kingdom. The ability of both governments and big corporations to monitor the internet, to gather data on us all, to determine what we can and cannot do or see on the web is another key but less welcome part of our digital world. And censorship and surveillance of digital communications is on the rise Ã¢â¬â not only in countries such as Iran, China and Russia, but also in India, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). While ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"great ? ewallÃ¢â¬ and army of snoopers does its best to block a whole gamut of politically-se nsitive topics and debates Ã¢â¬â sensitive that is to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s authoritarian elites Ã¢â¬â the democratic world is increasingly looking at using the technological opportunities out there, either to block content, or to monitor their own citizens. Earlier this year, Indian authorities came top in GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s transparency report Ã¢â¬â which shows government requests to Google to remove material and how many Google complied with Ã¢â¬â with the largest number of requests for Google to take down posts not backed by court orders. The US and Brazil had the highest number of takedown demands backed by court orders, while in TwitterÃ¢â¬â¢s similar transparency report, the US was the number one country demanding information on users. Google and Twitter also go along with many but not all of the requests NovemBER 17, 2012 they receive Ã¢â¬â private companies playing a crucial role in determining the extent of our free speech and our privacy. Meanwhile in the UK, a draft Communications Data Bill currently being scrutinised in Parliament, would, if it became law, lead to monitoring and retention of a vast array of digital data across the entire population. From tracking who our emails go to or come from, likewise our phone calls, to storing the data our mobiles give up on our locations or our web searches, showing what topics we are investigating, the draft UK Bill certainly deserves its popular name Ã¢â¬Å"a snooperÃ¢â¬â¢s charterÃ¢â¬ . Iran is also aiming to develop its own intranet that would operate in a way detached from the wider world-wide web, and so be much easier to control by state authorities. But how can India or the UK or US stand up to Iran and pressure them not to cut their citizens off from the wider digital world, if they are not fully respecting basic rights of their own citizens online? What Is Driving the Urge to Control? Freedom of expression is a fundamental right Ã¢â¬â and without it democracies cannot function and power cannot be held to account. So why are so many governments increasingly looking at control of our digital lives? There are two overlapping justi? cations at the heart of this. Do we need protecting from being offended? Attempts to justify censorship often appeal to the protection of public order, or public morals, tackling hate speech, or promoting national security. But unless highly limited, such censorship rapidly intrudes on open democratic debate, serious discussion, on art and entertainment, on all our communication and interaction. In the UK, a recent spate of cases indicate a deeply worrying trend towards criminalising speech Ã¢â¬â individuals have received jail sentences or community service orders for publishing sick or bad jokes online or on Twitter (or in one case for strong anti-police sentiments on a t-shirt). And while the Ã¢â¬Å"Innocence of MuslimsÃ¢â¬ video was highly offensive to some (though not all had seen it) is it really vol xlviI no 46 EPW Economic Political Weekly 18 COMMENTARY the job of governments to decide what is offensive or not? And if they do, and all governments between them censor all that is offensive on the web, then there will be very little left for us all to read or debate or write. We will end up in the opposite of a digital world Ã¢â¬â in a controlled and fragmented set of con? ned digital spaces. The other main justi? cation governments use for controlling the digital world is in order to justify monitoring and surveillance. We need it to tackle crime and terror, the authorities say with great urgency Ã¢â¬â the criminals are technologically leaps and bounds ahead of us. But do democracies really need to monitor and survey their entire populations just because digital technology makes it easy to do? Surely tackling crime needs a focused, targeted, intelligent approach Ã¢â¬â not a population-wide sledgehammer. And if democracies do mimic the mass snooping behaviour of the East German Stasi, or of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s China or Iran, then they will be undermining their own democratic systems. Free speech does not prevail where everything is being monitored, or collected, or stored so one day it may be checked on. And while governments need to be challenged not to censor and monitor and undermine the global digital space we share, private companies have become an increasingly important part of the equation Ã¢â¬â but one less easily held to account. FacebookÃ¢â¬â¢s users hit the one billion mark this autumn. But not only does Facebook make a lot of money out of the private and public information that the one billion share on its pages, it also sets the rules for the conversations in its space. Fair enough you may say, so do plenty of clubs or newspapers or societies. But telephone operators do not set rules of what you can and cannot say on the phone; cafes do not ask you to sign up to what you can and cannot say at the door. And as Twitter, Google and others respond to governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ requests to take material down Ã¢â¬â or stand up to governments (as they sometimes do) and defend what has been posted Ã¢â¬â we are witnessing a major privatisation of censorship in the digital world. Can We Defend the Digital Revolution? So have we lost the digital revolution while it is still in its infancy? Not necessarily. Some big web companies are issuing transparency reports, as Google and Twitter do, so we can all see and judge what they as companies are doing Ã¢â¬â though we cannot get that picture yet for any individual country. This is an important but partial step. Beyond this, some of the big companies, as well as many democratic governments, have made clear statements supporting an open, free digital space that respects human rights including the right to free expression. And the European Union (EU) and US are currently standing up to a push from China and Russia for top-down regulation of the internet. The next summit where this battle will continue is the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) meeting in Dubai in early December. Which way will India, or Brazil, or South Africa go at that summit Ã¢â¬â with the US and EU or with China and Russia? We are at a moment where the digital world can go either way Ã¢â¬â it can become a space of genuine free expression, one enjoyed by ever larger numbers of people, or it can become a controlled and monitored space. Like any battle for free speech and fundamental rights, governments and other major players Ã¢â¬â in this case big web companies and internet service providers Ã¢â¬â must be held to account and challenged to defend our rights. If democracies like India, the EU, the US or Brazil do not defend free speech in the digital world, and hold back from the temptation of censorship and surveillance almost at the click of a mouse, then we are on a dangerously slippery slope. It is a moment to stand up and defend our digital freedoms Ã¢â¬â for if we do not, who will? N EW The Adivasi Question Edited By INDRA MUNSHI Depletion and destruction of forests have eroded the already fragile survival base of adivasis across the country, displacing an alarmingly large number of adivasis to make way for development projects. Many have been forced to migrate to other rural areas or cities in search of work, leading to systematic alienation. This volume situates the issues concerning the adivasis in a historical context while discussing the challenges they face today. The introduction examines how the loss of land and livelihood began under the British administration, making the adivasis dependent on the landlord-moneylender-trader nexus for their survival. The articles, drawn from writings of almost four decades in EPW, discuss questions of community rights and ownership, management of forests, the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s rehabilitation policies, and the Forest Rights Act and its implications. It presents diverse perspectives in the form of case studies specific to different regions and provides valuable analytical insights. Authors: Ramachandra Guha Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sanjeeva Kumar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ashok K Upadhyaya Ã¢â¬ ¢ E Selvarajan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Nitya Rao Ã¢â¬ ¢ B B Mohanty Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brian Lobo Pp xi + 408 Rs 695 ISBN 978-81-250-4716-2 2012 Ã¢â¬ ¢ K Balagopal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sohel Firdos Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pankaj Sekhsaria Ã¢â¬ ¢ DN Ã¢â¬ ¢ Judy Whitehead Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sagari R Ramdas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Neela Mukherjee Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mathew Areeparampil Ã¢â¬ ¢ Asmita Kabra Ã¢â¬ ¢ Renu Modi Ã¢â¬ ¢ M Gopinath Reddy, K Anil Kumar, P Trinadha Rao, Oliver Springate-Baginski Ã¢â¬ ¢ Indra Munshi Ã¢â¬ ¢ Jyothis Sathyapalan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mahesh Rangarajan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Madhav Gadgil Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dev Nathan, Govind Kelkar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Emmanuel DÃ¢â¬â¢Silva, B Nagnath Ã¢â¬ ¢ Amita Baviskar ww. orientblackswan. com Mumbai Ã¢â¬ ¢ Chennai Ã¢â¬ ¢ New Delhi Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kolkata Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bangalore Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bhubaneshwar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ernakulam Ã¢â¬ ¢ Guwahati Ã¢â¬ ¢ Jaipur Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lucknow Ã¢â¬ ¢ Patna Ã¢â¬ ¢ Chandigarh Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hyderabad Contact: info@orientblackswan. com Economic Political Weekly EPW Orient Blackswan Pvt Ltd NovemBER 17, 2012 vol xlviI no 46 19 How to cite Free Speech in the Digital World Under Threat?, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
The Indian women writers who expressed their views and agony through their writings in the Postcolonial times for two major reasons. First, both patriarchy and imperialism could be seen to exert different forms of domination over those subordinate to them. Because of this, it was important for the experiences of women under the patriarchal influence to come out to the forefront and expose the undue cruelty be held on them by men. It was necessary for the women to oppose this male dominance over them. We observe that women continued to define the borders of the community, class and race. They tried to express their agony and dissatisfaction of male dominated attitude through their works. Though the Indian women writers try to depict the women as strong and focused in their vision to succeed in lives, they were, however, ablest to succeed in their lives only in the space allotted to them by the men. However, the Indian women writers who tried to stamp their authority in a male domina ted environment as best as it is possible to them. They know very well that it is a very difficult path, as the women had to break through years of male dominance, taboos and beliefs that had heavily impregnated the society. In addition, critics argued that colonialism operated very differently for women and for men. It is so because women are subjected to both general discrimination as colonial toys of subjects and specific discri mination as women addressed as double colonization.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Born Dead Nancyjo Mann was scheduled to have a saline injection method of abortion, which was developed in Nazi concentration camps (Ã¢â¬Å"Abortion MethodsÃ¢â¬ ). To start the abortion, Dr. Paulino Fong inserted a large needle into Nancyjo MannÃ¢â¬â¢s abdomen to withdraw 60 cc's of amniotic fluid, and then he replaced it with 200 cc's of saline solution. This process terrified Nancyjo and her six month old unborn baby. Her baby began thrashing about in her womb when the saline began to burn its skin, eyes, and throat, choking the baby and making it sick. The babyÃ¢â¬â¢s wonderful little home had become an agonizing death trap from which it could not escape. While NancyjoÃ¢â¬â¢s baby was dying, she prayed for forgiveness. Nancyjo cried as she talked to her baby, telling it the pain would be over soon. To this day, Nancyjo can still feel the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s last kick on her left side when, having no strength left, the baby gave up and died. Nancyjo was relieved her babyÃ¢â¬â¢s pain was finally over, but she was never the same again. In killing her baby, Nancyjo also killed a part of herself. On October 31, 1974, at 5:30 a.m., Nancyjo delivered a baby girl who weighed a pound and a half, and was over a foot long with her legs extended. She had a head of hair, and her eyes had begun to open. She had tiny hands and feet, with fingernails and tiny swirls of fingerprints. She was a perfect, tiny human being, but the most striking feature of NancyjoÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, who was twisted with agony, silent and still, was the fact she was dead (Reardon xiii-xvii). Nancyjo Mann is only one of the over 43, 358, 592 women who have obtained an abortion since its legalization in 1973, and the number is still rising today (Ã¢â¬Å"Abortion in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ 1). With this number rising steadily everyday, it is imperative to look at the way abortion affects the women who receive them, and the future children they may have. Abortion causes child abuse, post aborti... Free Essays on Born Dead Free Essays on Born Dead Born Dead Nancyjo Mann was scheduled to have a saline injection method of abortion, which was developed in Nazi concentration camps (Ã¢â¬Å"Abortion MethodsÃ¢â¬ ). To start the abortion, Dr. Paulino Fong inserted a large needle into Nancyjo MannÃ¢â¬â¢s abdomen to withdraw 60 cc's of amniotic fluid, and then he replaced it with 200 cc's of saline solution. This process terrified Nancyjo and her six month old unborn baby. Her baby began thrashing about in her womb when the saline began to burn its skin, eyes, and throat, choking the baby and making it sick. The babyÃ¢â¬â¢s wonderful little home had become an agonizing death trap from which it could not escape. While NancyjoÃ¢â¬â¢s baby was dying, she prayed for forgiveness. Nancyjo cried as she talked to her baby, telling it the pain would be over soon. To this day, Nancyjo can still feel the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s last kick on her left side when, having no strength left, the baby gave up and died. Nancyjo was relieved her babyÃ¢â¬â¢s pain was finally over, but she was never the same again. In killing her baby, Nancyjo also killed a part of herself. On October 31, 1974, at 5:30 a.m., Nancyjo delivered a baby girl who weighed a pound and a half, and was over a foot long with her legs extended. She had a head of hair, and her eyes had begun to open. She had tiny hands and feet, with fingernails and tiny swirls of fingerprints. She was a perfect, tiny human being, but the most striking feature of NancyjoÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, who was twisted with agony, silent and still, was the fact she was dead (Reardon xiii-xvii). Nancyjo Mann is only one of the over 43, 358, 592 women who have obtained an abortion since its legalization in 1973, and the number is still rising today (Ã¢â¬Å"Abortion in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ 1). With this number rising steadily everyday, it is imperative to look at the way abortion affects the women who receive them, and the future children they may have. Abortion causes child abuse, post aborti...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Under Ben Bulben by William Butler Yeats Irish Nobel laureate poet William Butler Yeats penned Under Ben Bulben as the last poem he would ever write. It is fitting that he wrote the last three lines to be the epitaph inscribed on his gravestone. The poem is a last will and testament for Yeats artistic and spiritual vision. His uses the legendary women and horsemen of the area to embody the spiritual wholeness and immortality. He calls on humanity, artists, and poets to continue to produce their art. Ben Bulben is the rock formation in County Sligo, Ireland, where Yeats is buried as he foretells in this poem. Ben, or binn means peak or mountain. Bulben comes from ghulbain, which means jaw or beak. The mountain is a destination for those following the passport trail of Yeats life. The last line of Under Ben Bulben is used as the title for Larry McMurtrys first novel, Horseman, Pass By.Ã Under Ben Bulbenby William Butler Yeats (1938) Ã Ã Ã Ã I Swear by what the sages spokeRound the Mareotic LakeThat the Witch of Atlas knew,Spoke and set the cocks a-crow. Swear by those horsemen, by those womenComplexion and form prove superhuman,That pale, long-visaged companyThat air in immortalityCompleteness of their passions won;Now they ride the wintry dawnWhere Ben Bulben sets the scene. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s the gist of what they mean. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã II Many times man lives and diesBetween his two eternities,That of race and that of soul,And ancient Ireland knew it all.Whether man die in his bedOr the rifle knocks him dead,A brief parting from those dearIs the worst man has to fear.Though grave-diggersÃ¢â¬â¢ toil is long,Sharp their spades, their muscles strong.They but thrust their buried menBack in the human mind again. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã III You that MitchelÃ¢â¬â¢s prayer have heard,Ã¢â¬Å"Send war in our time, O Lord!Ã¢â¬ Know that when all words are saidAnd a man is fighting mad,Something drops from eyes long blind,He completes his partial mind,For an instant stands at ease,Laughs aloud, his heart at peace.Even the wisest man grows tenseWith some sort of violenceBefore he can accomplish fate,Know his work or choose his mate. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã IV Poet and sculptor, do the work,Nor let the modish painter shirkWhat his great forefathers did.Bring the soul of man to God,Make him fill the cradles right. Measurement began our might:Forms a stark Egyptian thought,Forms that gentler Phidias wrought.Michael Angelo left a proofOn the Sistine Chapel roof,Where but half-awakened AdamCan disturb globe-trotting MadamTill her bowels are in heat,Proof that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a purpose setBefore the secret working mind:Profane perfection of mankind. Quattrocento put in paintOn backgrounds for a God or SaintGardens where a soulÃ¢â¬â¢s at ease;Where everything that meets the eye,Flowers and grass and cloudless sky,Resemble forms that are or seemWhen sleepers wake and yet still dream.And when itÃ¢â¬â¢s vanished still declare,With only bed and bedstead there,That heavens had opened. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Gyres run on;When that greater dream had goneCalvert and Wilson, Blake and Claude,Prepared a rest for the people of God,PalmerÃ¢â¬â¢s phrase, but after thatConfusion fell upon our thought. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã V Irish poets, learn your trade,Sing whatever is well made,Scorn the sort now growing upAll out of shape from toe to top,Their unremembering hearts and headsBase-born products of base beds.Sing the peasantry, and thenHard-riding country gentlemen,The holiness of monks, and afterPorter-drinkersÃ¢â¬â¢ randy laughter;Sing the lords and ladies gayThat were beaten into the clayThrough seven heroic centuries;Cast your mind on other daysThat we in coming days may beStill the indomitable Irishry. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã VI Under bare Ben BulbenÃ¢â¬â¢s headIn Drumcliff churchyard Yeats is laid.An ancestor was rector thereLong years ago, a church stands near,By the road an ancient cross.No marble, no conventional phrase;On limestone quarried near the spotBy his command these words are cut: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cast a cold eyeÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã On life, on death.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Horseman, pass by!
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Chateau de Versailles - Essay Example Among the most visited historical structures in France, is the Palace of Versailles, (known as Chateau of Versailles in French) which attaches with it a high degree of historical and political significance. The Chateau comes under the head of most visited monuments in France. The vital aspect of preservation of national treasures has been in focus and castles can not be excluded from being so. The rehabilitation of the Versailles shows the keen interest of the country in preserving the presence of such a unique treasure. The basic thought for constructing the Versailles was that it was supposed to be a personal dominion of gratification for Louis, but with its expansion, it was altered into a public centerpiece, displaying the gloire of both the ruler of France and the country itself. Although Versailles lacks the resolutely symbolic proportions, the geometrical planned layout and the utter scale of the gardens show that the intention had been to reflect the brilliantness and constancy of the monarchy which had never been portrayed. The architecture and the expert development along with its rehabilitation has made the castle a masterpiece which has attracted tourist to the site. Even though the chateau has had large queues, people are more than willing to spend hours waiting to explore the structure and ascertain its significance. The history of the chateau started from Louis XIII, on invitation from Gondi, the owner of seigneury of Versailles, went on several hunting trips in the forests of Versailles. Subsequently he ordered construction of a chateau in 1624. In 1632, Louis XIII purchased the seigneury and made extensions to the chateau. The work was limited to the extent that it allowed for mere alterations to the existing chateau. Further, to evade the busy life of Paris and to uphold the dignity under his control, Louis XIV, the Sun king, ordered the construction of the chateau in which he mounted the government. The second construction phase began in 1664 and lasted until Louis XIV's death (1715), this made the chateau into an entirely new building, which was shaped about the Royal Court. Louis le vau was assigned to refurbish expand an antique hunting lodge. From slough land the gardens were created by Le Notre and the hydraulic flaunt of fountains was exercised by Mansart.It was never meant to be a ho me for the King.Versailles was the headquarters of every limb of the state. However, the chateau was deserted after the death of Louis XIV. After Louis XV moved in, it remained as residence of the royal family and there were plans made for extension under Louis XVI, but these never succeeded as the French Revolution intervened, and thereafter it was ruined as the priceless furniture was sold, the pictures were sent away and the palace was turned into a museum. There came a time when it was nearly annihilated by Louis-Philippe. The Chateau now demonstrates on the one hand what remains of the former royal residence, which has an approximate of one hundred and twenty room, and on the other, the Muse d'Histoire (Museum of History) which Louis-Philippe called "Les Galeries Historiques" (Historical Galleries), compromising one hundred and twenty halls. The acts of Louis Philippe can be seen as a huge blow suffered by the monument. However, in 1871 during the Paris commune, it was recogniz ed as a seat for the nationalist government, and so the French parliament met in Louis XV's opera building, up until 1879, which
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Information management system - Essay Example ............12 Information Management System Ã¢â¬âÃ Google Plus Executive summary The advancements that have been made in technology over the years have led to a change in the ways that organizations conduct their business activities, with new methods and practices having been introduced in this neo modern era as a result. Whereas many functions were mostly handled manually or at least supervised thus in the past, the progress that has been made in the software and hardware industry have allowed for more mechanized responsibility to take over. This has proved to be more efficient and accurate in terms of capability and companies are beginning to realize the importance of inducting their organizations to this technological revolution. Among the various advancements that have been made in this era is the creation of Information Management Systems. These are one of the more popular inventions to enter the various industries and have proved to be a great success in the various field s in which they have been applied. A thorough study of the various models available to an organization serves to educate the company on the best strategy to implement according to their particular needs. Introduction Information management systems can be described as a collection of both hardware and software combined with the ability to receive and filter raw data and then process and use it to create new data relevant to certain organization.. The ability of Information Systems (IS) to perform these tasks has made life a whole lot easier for organizations operating on the basis of large amounts of different types of information flowing within and without the company in order for it to function efficiently. What previously took a lot of man power and hard labor can now be done in a span of minutes as the Information Systems are able to calculate needed equations at a considerably faster rate than man. As a result, these Information Systems have now occupied a strategic role in cont emporary businessÃ Ã organizations that now use them to build sustainable competitive advantages over their rivals as they try to maintain an edge above the rest of their peers in the industry. Conceptual framework Google is one such company that can be used as an example of the importance of Information Systems in the new age business (Google). As this organization started out as a search engine, it can be said that information was the forte that it dealt with and this is something that is still needed to date not only in their original business, but in their in-house activities as well. The organizational strategy of the company can thus said to be the future expansion of its influence on the social network market through the introduction of new and unique services within Google Plus to attract new clientele. Before one studies the various Information Systems that are used by the company and the various advantages that they bring to the table however, it is essential to first try and understand the strategy that they have undertaken within the market to ensure that they maintain their competitive edge and are not usurped by their rivals (McKeen & Smith 89). This can be done using the Michael PorterÃ¢â¬â¢
Saturday, January 25, 2020
There is a fine line between what American society looked like during World War II and contemporary America. The dilemma is that society has gone from patriotism and a fight for liberty to Ã¢â¬Å"everyone walking around with a chip on his or her shoulderÃ¢â¬ (Carr 2). This two distinct differences on America culture and society is manifested in, Howie CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Take $2000 and Call Me in the MorningÃ¢â¬ and Ronald ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, Ã¢â¬Å"The Boys of Point du HocÃ¢â¬ . CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Take $2000 and Call Me in the MorningÃ¢â¬ illustrates and criticizes the abuse of legal defense by citizens of the United States of America and how people feel like they are entitled to a lot of things. In contrast to that in Ronald ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, Ã¢â¬Å"The Boys of Point du HocÃ¢â¬ takes us back to a time back in American history where people fought and died for what they believed to be a just cause; while reiterating that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was to avoid what and conflict with the Soviet Union. In these two pieces of writing, both authors use different tones to get their message across to the public. CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s uses a sarcastic and humorous tone to poke fun at how American society and his humorous but important analogies to support his argument that people are abuses the legal system to get money. ReganÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument is that peace with the Soviets can be made, but war will always be an option if needed. Regan supports his argument w ith a serious tone, emotional words that evoke memories of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s strength and determination. Using a humorous and sarcastic tone, Carr addresses how serious this Ã¢â¬Å"emotional distressÃ¢â¬ that the American people know seem to suffer from. Carr uses this sarcastic tone to show the people how pathetic and chronic this situation has become. Carr starts out the essay by, Ã¢â¬Å"Alm... ...ntouchable, and whomever touches America will not live for long. Life in America society is different, and while reading the two texts from Carr and Reagan, it becomes apparent that the society has evolved to the worst. Society went from a courageous Ã¢â¬Å"bagpipe player in the middle of a bloody battleÃ¢â¬ (Reagan ) to Ã¢â¬Å"A guy suing after his dog confuses a restaurant for a fire hydrantÃ¢â¬ (Carr 2). The two authors show a huge contrast while using different tones and analogies to catch the attention of the people they are trying to reach. Has American society decline that much from the World War II era? Carr seems to think so and reading ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s speech shows how there is a clear difference. Works Cited Carr, Howie. Ã¢â¬Å"Take $2000 and Call Me in the Morning.Ã¢â¬ Boston Herald (March 1995): 1-2 Reagan, Ronald. Ã¢â¬Å"The Boys of Point du HocÃ¢â¬ . Course Packet. (June 6, 1984) 26-29
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Galileo Galilei was an Italian scientist born on February 15, 1564. He lived in a time when people perceived the earth as the center of the universe and when people interpreted the scriptures literally. He originally pursued the field of medicine, but later gained an inclination towards mathematics. He worked to develop the scientific method and to explain the world in mathematical terms. Today, his inventions and discoveries contributed to the establishment of the scientific worldÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation. Galileo Galilei: Man of Science Galileo Galilei is one of the most revolutionary figures in history who transcended both religious and scientific conventions. The expanse of his accomplishments cover physics, astronomy, and mathematics, all to which his contributions have resulted in significant advances. He lived in a time when truth was persecuted and religion dictates facts of society. But he refused to remain in stagnation and to accept without question. His works reflected both genius and ingenuity, as his life mirrored the depths that human intelligence can reach. Being a highly celebrated scientist, Galileo has proven himself a man who would always exercise the freedom to think, discover, and create. Life and Writings An Italian scientist born on the 15th of February 1564 in the city of Pisa, Galileo Galilei lived in a time when Europeans have only recently discovered the Americas. He was born towards the end of the Renaissance period. His birth was three days prior Michael AngeloÃ¢â¬â¢s death, 72 years after the discovery of the Americas, 43 years before the landing of the Mayflower, and two months before the birth of Shakespeare (Fermi and Bernardini, 1961, p. 11). Galileo, as he is more popularly called, was the son of Vincenzo Galilei and Giulia Ammannati. Although originally from Pisa, Italy and lived there for 10 years, Galileo moved to Florence, his FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s birthplace, to join his family. He was then sent to the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa in order to be educated by the Benedictine monks. This religious order became attractive to the young Galileo, as he incorporated the monastic life with solitude and hermitage. He entered the order and became a noviciate, but his religious life was put to a halt as he faced a strong opposition from his father. Vincenzo Galilei had already intended that his eldest child would practice medicine (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and Robertson, 2002). Galileo pursued his medical degree at the University of Pisa, as he was urged by his father. But being a physician was never appealing for Galileo, and he only took interests on course subjects concerning mathematics and natural philosophy. This diverted his attention from medicine to his destined field, mathematics and natural sciences. In 1589 at the University of Pisa, he became the chair of mathematics. However, after the death of his father, which compelled him to search for more lucrative means to support his family, Galileo took the position of professor of mathematics at the University of Padua in 1592. Until 1610, he taught geometry, mechanics, and astronomy in this university. This period was very important as Galileo made outstanding discoveries during this time in both pure and applied sciences. He argued against the Aristotelian doctrines on the universe and even believed that KeplerÃ¢â¬â¢s Supernova of 1604 occurred far from the Earth. He already silently believed in the Copernican claim of heliocentrism (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and Robertson, 2002). Galileo had three children with Marina Gamba. But he fathered his son and two daughters out of wedlock. The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s illegitimate status made Galileo decide that his daughters are not suited for marriage and therefore must enter a religious order. They became nuns of the convent of San Matteo Arceteri where they forever remained. His son, on the other hand, later gained a legitimate status and was able to later marry (Life, 2000). Due to his support for the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo faced the Inquisition of the Catholic Church in 1633. The leaders of the Roman Catholic religion convicted Galileo with the crime of heresy. As part of his punishment, the church ordered that he withdraw his support for Copernicus publicly. He was also given the sentence of life imprisonment, but only served house arrest due to his advanced age. By his age of 72, Galileo suffered from blindness due to cataracts and glaucoma. And in 1642, Galileo Galilei died at Arcetri. This was the very same birth year of another physicist, Isaac Newton (Chew, 1996). One of the most interesting characteristics of his writings is that they are all, except for one, written in the Italian language instead of Latin. Although Italian was his native tongue, the more conventional medium of scientific writing was Latin. Two of his most renowned works are entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and CopernicanÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Dialogues Concerning Two New SciencesÃ¢â¬ (Kolatkar, 2001, p. 3). He presented these works in a considerably dramatic and lively manner. Here, he told of the story of a conversation among three characters, Simplicio (representation of Aristotle), Salviati (representation of Galileo), and Sagredo (intelligent layperson). His greatest scientific contributions were contained in these literatures. These highly influenced the Ã¢â¬Å"modern scientific thought Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëits method of enquiryÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëits criterion of truthÃ¢â¬ (Kolatkar, 2001, p. 3). He was the responsible for the current scientific method that scientists are employing, and which would last for generations to come. His other famous writings include Ã¢â¬Å"The Little Balance,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Starry Messenger,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Letters on Sunspots,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Letter to Grand Duchess Christina,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å" Discoros Delle Comete,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The AssayerÃ¢â¬ (Chew, 1996). Contributions in Astronomy, Physics, Mathematics, and Technology Given the title of Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Modern ScienceÃ¢â¬ (Finocchiaro, 1989, p. 1), Galileo Galilei has highly contributed to the advancement of science especially in the field of astronomy, physics, and mathematics. He developed the scientific method, which is very instrumental in the methodology employed by many of the scientists after him. This scientific method allowed scientists to conduct experimentations that are quantitative as opposed to qualitative, repeatable, and unbiased (Finocchiaro, 1989, p. 1). In the field of physics, Galileo notably took interest on falling bodies. At the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, Galileo dropped a cannonball and a feather. Through this simple experiment, he discovered that the falling objects had the same acceleration despite their differences in mass. He found that the speed is dependent on air resistance and not on the objectÃ¢â¬â¢s mass, which is now one of the most well known laws of physics (PBS, 2002, p. 1). GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s mathematical inclinations led him to developing a certain method in solving problems. He reduced these problems into ordinary lay terms and adapted them into a common-sense logic level. He used this in formulating analyses and in resolving the problems into simplified mathematical terms. This proved to be successful as he was able to describe and experiment on motion, which eventually helped Isaac Newton in mathematically describing his Law of Inertia (Chew, 1996). Galileo is also known for his technological contributions. Galileo was naturally observant and very curious with his surroundings. He enjoyed exploring and experimenting on mechanical objects. This interest led him to invent a simply designed thermometer, a geometric military compass, and a modified telescope. It is with the latter invention that Galileo was able to explore the celestial bodies. Galileo observed the moonÃ¢â¬â¢s surface and found that it has great similarities with the Earth. He also made the very interesting astronomical observation on Jupiter and its four moons and on Venus and its different phases. Using his self constructed telescope, Galileo viewed distant planets and stars, their behaviour and their surfaces. Still in contribution to the field of Astronomy, Galileo described and illustrated the altering pattern of the SunÃ¢â¬â¢s spots. His proposed explanation for this phenomenon is that these changes in the sunspotsÃ¢â¬â¢ pattern were due to the rotation of the sun. Of all GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific theories, his most controversial was his support for the Copernican opposition against the classic Aristotelian doctrines. The ancient GreeksÃ¢â¬â¢ belief of geocentrism and geostasis were taught in all universities and other academic institutions at his time. But Galileo opposed these views as he believed in the Copernican geokinetic and heliocentric theories. This is a highly controversial stand for Galileo as it led to his encounter with the church, which eventually sentenced him to life imprisonment (Finocchiaro, 1989, p. 7). After being sentenced into life imprisonment, Galileo served his punishment under house arrest until his death. But this did not prevent him from continuing his scientific experiments. When he returned to his studies in physics, particularly motion, he analyzed falling bodies, projectiles, inclined planes, and other important areas that are considered as the foundations of modern physics (PBS, 2002, p. 1). The Inquisition As one of the most popular and accomplished scientists in his time, Galileo was not only under the scrutiny of the public but most essentially by the church. It was however unfortunate that the Father of Modern Science did not escape the fury of religious officials against his beliefs. He greatly suffered from his encounters with the Roman Catholic religion, and paid until the rest of his life (Wudka, 1998). At the University of Pisa, Galileo taught astronomy with the required curriculum. He was compelled to teach the geocentric and geostatic theories that scholars of his time accepted. But due to his exposure to a novel theory by Nicolaus Copernicus when he taught at the University of Padua, he became convinced that the earth and the other planets revolve around sun. This is otherwise known as the heliocentric theory that is currently accepted as a scientific fact. His support for Copernicus meant that he was against the doctrines taught by the Roman Catholic Church. In 1633, he faced the historically renowned Ã¢â¬Å"InquisitionÃ¢â¬ (Chew, 1996). It was in 1611 that Galileo first experienced religious encounters for his Copernican beliefs. Four years prior the inquisition, the Dominican friar named Niccolo Lorini had criticized his views and even filed a complaint against him. In his defence, Galileo argued to the officials in Vatican and to the Grand Duchess Christina that he be given liberty to inquire and defend his ideas in Rome. By the year 1616, scholars proclaimed that heliocentrism is both philosophically absurd and theologically erroneous. Those who advocated this theory were considered heretics. He was ordered by Pope Paul V to refrain from defending the Copernican view and to discuss his beliefs neither in speech nor in writing (Wudka, 1998). The Roman Catholic Church was already experiencing oppositions from different sectors of the society. It was facing battles against armies of Protestants and therefore needed to establish and to demonstrate enough strength against their enemies. With his authority at stake, then churchÃ¢â¬â¢s leader Pope Urban VIII accused Galileo of mockery against him. This placed the renowned scientist before an inquisition which later convicted him guilty of heresy. He was 69 years old during the incident, and therefore was very physically vulnerable. The church threatened him of serious torture if he did not withdraw his support for Copernicus. Therefore, he recanted his theory and was sentenced into life imprisonment, but instead placed under house arrest. He died serving his sentence and it was not until 1992 that the church apologized for its maltreatment towards this man of science (Life, 2000). Legacy Three hundred years after the inquisition, the church recanted its verdict against the men of science that they persecuted. Galileo Galilei, together with Copernicus and other men, was absolved of the crimes they were accused of. But more than his sufferings from the hands of the church, Galileo has left his legacy in the world of science. He would forever be remembered for his contributions in the laws of physics and his astronomical findings. And most of all, his improvement of the microscope would always be regarded as a revolutionary tool in advancing our knowledge of the universe. Generations after ours would never cease to know his name, as it epitomizes both genius and greatness. Galileo Galilei has carved his niche and would forever be remembered as a man who shaped the modern world of science (Hughes and Shaw, 1999). Ã¢â¬Å"I do not feel obliged to believe that the same god who has endowed us with sense, reason and intellect has intended us to forgo their use. Ã¢â¬ -Galileo Galilei References Chew, R. (1996). Galileo Galilei. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www. lucidcafe. com/library/96feb/galileo. html. Finocchiaro, M. A. (1989). The Galileo Affair: A Documentary. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Hughes, E. And Shaw, L. (1999). GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s Legacy. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www. cogs. susx. ac. uk/users/desw/galileo/life/legacy. html. Kolatkar, M. (2001). Galileo Galilei: Father of Modern Science. Journal of Science Education, 6:3. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from www. iisc. ernet. in/academy/resonance/Aug2001/pdf/Aug2001p3-5. pdf Life (2000). Galileo Sees the Moons of Jupiter and the Earth Moves. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www. life. com/Life/millennium/events/05. html. OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, J. J. , and Robertson, E. F. (2002). Galileo Galilei. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www-history. mcs. st-andrews. ac. uk/Biographies/Galileo. html. PBS (2002). Who Was Galileo Galiei? Retrieved January 31, 2008 from www. pbs. org/wgbh/nova/galileo/media/lrk_handout. pdf. Wudka, J. (1998). Galileo and the Inquisition. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://phyun5. ucr. edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node52. html.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Cambridge Universitys First Certificate Examination (FCE) is probably the most widely respected English learning certificate outside of the United States. Examination centers around the world offer the First Certificate Exam twice a year; once in December and once in June. In fact, the First Certificate is only one of a number of Cambridge examinations aimed at levels from young learners to business English. However, the FCE is certainly the most popular. The tests are given in Cambridge University approved exam centers using Cambridge University approved examiners. Study Strategy Studying for the First Certificate Exam usually involves a long course. First Certificate preparation course can last 120 hours and involve a difficult (and long) exam which contains five papers including: ReadingWritingUse of EnglishListeningSpeaking There are few resources on the Internet for First Certificate preparation. However, you canÃ find practice tests, wordbanks, and practiceÃ exercises. You can use these materials to prepare for the exam or to check to see if your level of English is right for working towards this exam. About the Test Before beginning to study for the First Certificate, it is a good idea to understand the philosophy and purpose behind this standardized test. Practicing techniques on test taking can help you understand general test-taking preparation. The best way to understand the specifics of the FCE is to go straight to the source and visit the introduction to the exam at Cambridge Universitys EFL site. For information about where the First Certificate is placed on the European 5-level scale, you can visit this informative page. Listening Finding FCE-specific listening practice exercises can be difficult, so get creative! Visit the BBCs audio and visual page and listen to or watch various ABC programs. The exam is purely British English, so its best to listen to this classic British radio station.