Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Born Dead Nancyjo Mann was scheduled to have a saline injection method of abortion, which was developed in Nazi concentration camps (Ã¢â¬Å"Abortion MethodsÃ¢â¬ ). To start the abortion, Dr. Paulino Fong inserted a large needle into Nancyjo MannÃ¢â¬â¢s abdomen to withdraw 60 cc's of amniotic fluid, and then he replaced it with 200 cc's of saline solution. This process terrified Nancyjo and her six month old unborn baby. Her baby began thrashing about in her womb when the saline began to burn its skin, eyes, and throat, choking the baby and making it sick. The babyÃ¢â¬â¢s wonderful little home had become an agonizing death trap from which it could not escape. While NancyjoÃ¢â¬â¢s baby was dying, she prayed for forgiveness. Nancyjo cried as she talked to her baby, telling it the pain would be over soon. To this day, Nancyjo can still feel the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s last kick on her left side when, having no strength left, the baby gave up and died. Nancyjo was relieved her babyÃ¢â¬â¢s pain was finally over, but she was never the same again. In killing her baby, Nancyjo also killed a part of herself. On October 31, 1974, at 5:30 a.m., Nancyjo delivered a baby girl who weighed a pound and a half, and was over a foot long with her legs extended. She had a head of hair, and her eyes had begun to open. She had tiny hands and feet, with fingernails and tiny swirls of fingerprints. She was a perfect, tiny human being, but the most striking feature of NancyjoÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, who was twisted with agony, silent and still, was the fact she was dead (Reardon xiii-xvii). Nancyjo Mann is only one of the over 43, 358, 592 women who have obtained an abortion since its legalization in 1973, and the number is still rising today (Ã¢â¬Å"Abortion in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ 1). With this number rising steadily everyday, it is imperative to look at the way abortion affects the women who receive them, and the future children they may have. Abortion causes child abuse, post aborti... Free Essays on Born Dead Free Essays on Born Dead Born Dead Nancyjo Mann was scheduled to have a saline injection method of abortion, which was developed in Nazi concentration camps (Ã¢â¬Å"Abortion MethodsÃ¢â¬ ). To start the abortion, Dr. Paulino Fong inserted a large needle into Nancyjo MannÃ¢â¬â¢s abdomen to withdraw 60 cc's of amniotic fluid, and then he replaced it with 200 cc's of saline solution. This process terrified Nancyjo and her six month old unborn baby. Her baby began thrashing about in her womb when the saline began to burn its skin, eyes, and throat, choking the baby and making it sick. The babyÃ¢â¬â¢s wonderful little home had become an agonizing death trap from which it could not escape. While NancyjoÃ¢â¬â¢s baby was dying, she prayed for forgiveness. Nancyjo cried as she talked to her baby, telling it the pain would be over soon. To this day, Nancyjo can still feel the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s last kick on her left side when, having no strength left, the baby gave up and died. Nancyjo was relieved her babyÃ¢â¬â¢s pain was finally over, but she was never the same again. In killing her baby, Nancyjo also killed a part of herself. On October 31, 1974, at 5:30 a.m., Nancyjo delivered a baby girl who weighed a pound and a half, and was over a foot long with her legs extended. She had a head of hair, and her eyes had begun to open. She had tiny hands and feet, with fingernails and tiny swirls of fingerprints. She was a perfect, tiny human being, but the most striking feature of NancyjoÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, who was twisted with agony, silent and still, was the fact she was dead (Reardon xiii-xvii). Nancyjo Mann is only one of the over 43, 358, 592 women who have obtained an abortion since its legalization in 1973, and the number is still rising today (Ã¢â¬Å"Abortion in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ 1). With this number rising steadily everyday, it is imperative to look at the way abortion affects the women who receive them, and the future children they may have. Abortion causes child abuse, post aborti...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Under Ben Bulben by William Butler Yeats Irish Nobel laureate poet William Butler Yeats penned Under Ben Bulben as the last poem he would ever write. It is fitting that he wrote the last three lines to be the epitaph inscribed on his gravestone. The poem is a last will and testament for Yeats artistic and spiritual vision. His uses the legendary women and horsemen of the area to embody the spiritual wholeness and immortality. He calls on humanity, artists, and poets to continue to produce their art. Ben Bulben is the rock formation in County Sligo, Ireland, where Yeats is buried as he foretells in this poem. Ben, or binn means peak or mountain. Bulben comes from ghulbain, which means jaw or beak. The mountain is a destination for those following the passport trail of Yeats life. The last line of Under Ben Bulben is used as the title for Larry McMurtrys first novel, Horseman, Pass By.Ã Under Ben Bulbenby William Butler Yeats (1938) Ã Ã Ã Ã I Swear by what the sages spokeRound the Mareotic LakeThat the Witch of Atlas knew,Spoke and set the cocks a-crow. Swear by those horsemen, by those womenComplexion and form prove superhuman,That pale, long-visaged companyThat air in immortalityCompleteness of their passions won;Now they ride the wintry dawnWhere Ben Bulben sets the scene. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s the gist of what they mean. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã II Many times man lives and diesBetween his two eternities,That of race and that of soul,And ancient Ireland knew it all.Whether man die in his bedOr the rifle knocks him dead,A brief parting from those dearIs the worst man has to fear.Though grave-diggersÃ¢â¬â¢ toil is long,Sharp their spades, their muscles strong.They but thrust their buried menBack in the human mind again. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã III You that MitchelÃ¢â¬â¢s prayer have heard,Ã¢â¬Å"Send war in our time, O Lord!Ã¢â¬ Know that when all words are saidAnd a man is fighting mad,Something drops from eyes long blind,He completes his partial mind,For an instant stands at ease,Laughs aloud, his heart at peace.Even the wisest man grows tenseWith some sort of violenceBefore he can accomplish fate,Know his work or choose his mate. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã IV Poet and sculptor, do the work,Nor let the modish painter shirkWhat his great forefathers did.Bring the soul of man to God,Make him fill the cradles right. Measurement began our might:Forms a stark Egyptian thought,Forms that gentler Phidias wrought.Michael Angelo left a proofOn the Sistine Chapel roof,Where but half-awakened AdamCan disturb globe-trotting MadamTill her bowels are in heat,Proof that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a purpose setBefore the secret working mind:Profane perfection of mankind. Quattrocento put in paintOn backgrounds for a God or SaintGardens where a soulÃ¢â¬â¢s at ease;Where everything that meets the eye,Flowers and grass and cloudless sky,Resemble forms that are or seemWhen sleepers wake and yet still dream.And when itÃ¢â¬â¢s vanished still declare,With only bed and bedstead there,That heavens had opened. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Gyres run on;When that greater dream had goneCalvert and Wilson, Blake and Claude,Prepared a rest for the people of God,PalmerÃ¢â¬â¢s phrase, but after thatConfusion fell upon our thought. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã V Irish poets, learn your trade,Sing whatever is well made,Scorn the sort now growing upAll out of shape from toe to top,Their unremembering hearts and headsBase-born products of base beds.Sing the peasantry, and thenHard-riding country gentlemen,The holiness of monks, and afterPorter-drinkersÃ¢â¬â¢ randy laughter;Sing the lords and ladies gayThat were beaten into the clayThrough seven heroic centuries;Cast your mind on other daysThat we in coming days may beStill the indomitable Irishry. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã VI Under bare Ben BulbenÃ¢â¬â¢s headIn Drumcliff churchyard Yeats is laid.An ancestor was rector thereLong years ago, a church stands near,By the road an ancient cross.No marble, no conventional phrase;On limestone quarried near the spotBy his command these words are cut: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cast a cold eyeÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã On life, on death.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Horseman, pass by!
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Chateau de Versailles - Essay Example Among the most visited historical structures in France, is the Palace of Versailles, (known as Chateau of Versailles in French) which attaches with it a high degree of historical and political significance. The Chateau comes under the head of most visited monuments in France. The vital aspect of preservation of national treasures has been in focus and castles can not be excluded from being so. The rehabilitation of the Versailles shows the keen interest of the country in preserving the presence of such a unique treasure. The basic thought for constructing the Versailles was that it was supposed to be a personal dominion of gratification for Louis, but with its expansion, it was altered into a public centerpiece, displaying the gloire of both the ruler of France and the country itself. Although Versailles lacks the resolutely symbolic proportions, the geometrical planned layout and the utter scale of the gardens show that the intention had been to reflect the brilliantness and constancy of the monarchy which had never been portrayed. The architecture and the expert development along with its rehabilitation has made the castle a masterpiece which has attracted tourist to the site. Even though the chateau has had large queues, people are more than willing to spend hours waiting to explore the structure and ascertain its significance. The history of the chateau started from Louis XIII, on invitation from Gondi, the owner of seigneury of Versailles, went on several hunting trips in the forests of Versailles. Subsequently he ordered construction of a chateau in 1624. In 1632, Louis XIII purchased the seigneury and made extensions to the chateau. The work was limited to the extent that it allowed for mere alterations to the existing chateau. Further, to evade the busy life of Paris and to uphold the dignity under his control, Louis XIV, the Sun king, ordered the construction of the chateau in which he mounted the government. The second construction phase began in 1664 and lasted until Louis XIV's death (1715), this made the chateau into an entirely new building, which was shaped about the Royal Court. Louis le vau was assigned to refurbish expand an antique hunting lodge. From slough land the gardens were created by Le Notre and the hydraulic flaunt of fountains was exercised by Mansart.It was never meant to be a ho me for the King.Versailles was the headquarters of every limb of the state. However, the chateau was deserted after the death of Louis XIV. After Louis XV moved in, it remained as residence of the royal family and there were plans made for extension under Louis XVI, but these never succeeded as the French Revolution intervened, and thereafter it was ruined as the priceless furniture was sold, the pictures were sent away and the palace was turned into a museum. There came a time when it was nearly annihilated by Louis-Philippe. The Chateau now demonstrates on the one hand what remains of the former royal residence, which has an approximate of one hundred and twenty room, and on the other, the Muse d'Histoire (Museum of History) which Louis-Philippe called "Les Galeries Historiques" (Historical Galleries), compromising one hundred and twenty halls. The acts of Louis Philippe can be seen as a huge blow suffered by the monument. However, in 1871 during the Paris commune, it was recogniz ed as a seat for the nationalist government, and so the French parliament met in Louis XV's opera building, up until 1879, which
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Information management system - Essay Example ............12 Information Management System Ã¢â¬âÃ Google Plus Executive summary The advancements that have been made in technology over the years have led to a change in the ways that organizations conduct their business activities, with new methods and practices having been introduced in this neo modern era as a result. Whereas many functions were mostly handled manually or at least supervised thus in the past, the progress that has been made in the software and hardware industry have allowed for more mechanized responsibility to take over. This has proved to be more efficient and accurate in terms of capability and companies are beginning to realize the importance of inducting their organizations to this technological revolution. Among the various advancements that have been made in this era is the creation of Information Management Systems. These are one of the more popular inventions to enter the various industries and have proved to be a great success in the various field s in which they have been applied. A thorough study of the various models available to an organization serves to educate the company on the best strategy to implement according to their particular needs. Introduction Information management systems can be described as a collection of both hardware and software combined with the ability to receive and filter raw data and then process and use it to create new data relevant to certain organization.. The ability of Information Systems (IS) to perform these tasks has made life a whole lot easier for organizations operating on the basis of large amounts of different types of information flowing within and without the company in order for it to function efficiently. What previously took a lot of man power and hard labor can now be done in a span of minutes as the Information Systems are able to calculate needed equations at a considerably faster rate than man. As a result, these Information Systems have now occupied a strategic role in cont emporary businessÃ Ã organizations that now use them to build sustainable competitive advantages over their rivals as they try to maintain an edge above the rest of their peers in the industry. Conceptual framework Google is one such company that can be used as an example of the importance of Information Systems in the new age business (Google). As this organization started out as a search engine, it can be said that information was the forte that it dealt with and this is something that is still needed to date not only in their original business, but in their in-house activities as well. The organizational strategy of the company can thus said to be the future expansion of its influence on the social network market through the introduction of new and unique services within Google Plus to attract new clientele. Before one studies the various Information Systems that are used by the company and the various advantages that they bring to the table however, it is essential to first try and understand the strategy that they have undertaken within the market to ensure that they maintain their competitive edge and are not usurped by their rivals (McKeen & Smith 89). This can be done using the Michael PorterÃ¢â¬â¢
Saturday, January 25, 2020
There is a fine line between what American society looked like during World War II and contemporary America. The dilemma is that society has gone from patriotism and a fight for liberty to Ã¢â¬Å"everyone walking around with a chip on his or her shoulderÃ¢â¬ (Carr 2). This two distinct differences on America culture and society is manifested in, Howie CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Take $2000 and Call Me in the MorningÃ¢â¬ and Ronald ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, Ã¢â¬Å"The Boys of Point du HocÃ¢â¬ . CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Take $2000 and Call Me in the MorningÃ¢â¬ illustrates and criticizes the abuse of legal defense by citizens of the United States of America and how people feel like they are entitled to a lot of things. In contrast to that in Ronald ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, Ã¢â¬Å"The Boys of Point du HocÃ¢â¬ takes us back to a time back in American history where people fought and died for what they believed to be a just cause; while reiterating that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was to avoid what and conflict with the Soviet Union. In these two pieces of writing, both authors use different tones to get their message across to the public. CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s uses a sarcastic and humorous tone to poke fun at how American society and his humorous but important analogies to support his argument that people are abuses the legal system to get money. ReganÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument is that peace with the Soviets can be made, but war will always be an option if needed. Regan supports his argument w ith a serious tone, emotional words that evoke memories of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s strength and determination. Using a humorous and sarcastic tone, Carr addresses how serious this Ã¢â¬Å"emotional distressÃ¢â¬ that the American people know seem to suffer from. Carr uses this sarcastic tone to show the people how pathetic and chronic this situation has become. Carr starts out the essay by, Ã¢â¬Å"Alm... ...ntouchable, and whomever touches America will not live for long. Life in America society is different, and while reading the two texts from Carr and Reagan, it becomes apparent that the society has evolved to the worst. Society went from a courageous Ã¢â¬Å"bagpipe player in the middle of a bloody battleÃ¢â¬ (Reagan ) to Ã¢â¬Å"A guy suing after his dog confuses a restaurant for a fire hydrantÃ¢â¬ (Carr 2). The two authors show a huge contrast while using different tones and analogies to catch the attention of the people they are trying to reach. Has American society decline that much from the World War II era? Carr seems to think so and reading ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s speech shows how there is a clear difference. Works Cited Carr, Howie. Ã¢â¬Å"Take $2000 and Call Me in the Morning.Ã¢â¬ Boston Herald (March 1995): 1-2 Reagan, Ronald. Ã¢â¬Å"The Boys of Point du HocÃ¢â¬ . Course Packet. (June 6, 1984) 26-29
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Galileo Galilei was an Italian scientist born on February 15, 1564. He lived in a time when people perceived the earth as the center of the universe and when people interpreted the scriptures literally. He originally pursued the field of medicine, but later gained an inclination towards mathematics. He worked to develop the scientific method and to explain the world in mathematical terms. Today, his inventions and discoveries contributed to the establishment of the scientific worldÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation. Galileo Galilei: Man of Science Galileo Galilei is one of the most revolutionary figures in history who transcended both religious and scientific conventions. The expanse of his accomplishments cover physics, astronomy, and mathematics, all to which his contributions have resulted in significant advances. He lived in a time when truth was persecuted and religion dictates facts of society. But he refused to remain in stagnation and to accept without question. His works reflected both genius and ingenuity, as his life mirrored the depths that human intelligence can reach. Being a highly celebrated scientist, Galileo has proven himself a man who would always exercise the freedom to think, discover, and create. Life and Writings An Italian scientist born on the 15th of February 1564 in the city of Pisa, Galileo Galilei lived in a time when Europeans have only recently discovered the Americas. He was born towards the end of the Renaissance period. His birth was three days prior Michael AngeloÃ¢â¬â¢s death, 72 years after the discovery of the Americas, 43 years before the landing of the Mayflower, and two months before the birth of Shakespeare (Fermi and Bernardini, 1961, p. 11). Galileo, as he is more popularly called, was the son of Vincenzo Galilei and Giulia Ammannati. Although originally from Pisa, Italy and lived there for 10 years, Galileo moved to Florence, his FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s birthplace, to join his family. He was then sent to the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa in order to be educated by the Benedictine monks. This religious order became attractive to the young Galileo, as he incorporated the monastic life with solitude and hermitage. He entered the order and became a noviciate, but his religious life was put to a halt as he faced a strong opposition from his father. Vincenzo Galilei had already intended that his eldest child would practice medicine (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and Robertson, 2002). Galileo pursued his medical degree at the University of Pisa, as he was urged by his father. But being a physician was never appealing for Galileo, and he only took interests on course subjects concerning mathematics and natural philosophy. This diverted his attention from medicine to his destined field, mathematics and natural sciences. In 1589 at the University of Pisa, he became the chair of mathematics. However, after the death of his father, which compelled him to search for more lucrative means to support his family, Galileo took the position of professor of mathematics at the University of Padua in 1592. Until 1610, he taught geometry, mechanics, and astronomy in this university. This period was very important as Galileo made outstanding discoveries during this time in both pure and applied sciences. He argued against the Aristotelian doctrines on the universe and even believed that KeplerÃ¢â¬â¢s Supernova of 1604 occurred far from the Earth. He already silently believed in the Copernican claim of heliocentrism (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and Robertson, 2002). Galileo had three children with Marina Gamba. But he fathered his son and two daughters out of wedlock. The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s illegitimate status made Galileo decide that his daughters are not suited for marriage and therefore must enter a religious order. They became nuns of the convent of San Matteo Arceteri where they forever remained. His son, on the other hand, later gained a legitimate status and was able to later marry (Life, 2000). Due to his support for the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo faced the Inquisition of the Catholic Church in 1633. The leaders of the Roman Catholic religion convicted Galileo with the crime of heresy. As part of his punishment, the church ordered that he withdraw his support for Copernicus publicly. He was also given the sentence of life imprisonment, but only served house arrest due to his advanced age. By his age of 72, Galileo suffered from blindness due to cataracts and glaucoma. And in 1642, Galileo Galilei died at Arcetri. This was the very same birth year of another physicist, Isaac Newton (Chew, 1996). One of the most interesting characteristics of his writings is that they are all, except for one, written in the Italian language instead of Latin. Although Italian was his native tongue, the more conventional medium of scientific writing was Latin. Two of his most renowned works are entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and CopernicanÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Dialogues Concerning Two New SciencesÃ¢â¬ (Kolatkar, 2001, p. 3). He presented these works in a considerably dramatic and lively manner. Here, he told of the story of a conversation among three characters, Simplicio (representation of Aristotle), Salviati (representation of Galileo), and Sagredo (intelligent layperson). His greatest scientific contributions were contained in these literatures. These highly influenced the Ã¢â¬Å"modern scientific thought Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëits method of enquiryÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëits criterion of truthÃ¢â¬ (Kolatkar, 2001, p. 3). He was the responsible for the current scientific method that scientists are employing, and which would last for generations to come. His other famous writings include Ã¢â¬Å"The Little Balance,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Starry Messenger,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Letters on Sunspots,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Letter to Grand Duchess Christina,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å" Discoros Delle Comete,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The AssayerÃ¢â¬ (Chew, 1996). Contributions in Astronomy, Physics, Mathematics, and Technology Given the title of Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Modern ScienceÃ¢â¬ (Finocchiaro, 1989, p. 1), Galileo Galilei has highly contributed to the advancement of science especially in the field of astronomy, physics, and mathematics. He developed the scientific method, which is very instrumental in the methodology employed by many of the scientists after him. This scientific method allowed scientists to conduct experimentations that are quantitative as opposed to qualitative, repeatable, and unbiased (Finocchiaro, 1989, p. 1). In the field of physics, Galileo notably took interest on falling bodies. At the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, Galileo dropped a cannonball and a feather. Through this simple experiment, he discovered that the falling objects had the same acceleration despite their differences in mass. He found that the speed is dependent on air resistance and not on the objectÃ¢â¬â¢s mass, which is now one of the most well known laws of physics (PBS, 2002, p. 1). GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s mathematical inclinations led him to developing a certain method in solving problems. He reduced these problems into ordinary lay terms and adapted them into a common-sense logic level. He used this in formulating analyses and in resolving the problems into simplified mathematical terms. This proved to be successful as he was able to describe and experiment on motion, which eventually helped Isaac Newton in mathematically describing his Law of Inertia (Chew, 1996). Galileo is also known for his technological contributions. Galileo was naturally observant and very curious with his surroundings. He enjoyed exploring and experimenting on mechanical objects. This interest led him to invent a simply designed thermometer, a geometric military compass, and a modified telescope. It is with the latter invention that Galileo was able to explore the celestial bodies. Galileo observed the moonÃ¢â¬â¢s surface and found that it has great similarities with the Earth. He also made the very interesting astronomical observation on Jupiter and its four moons and on Venus and its different phases. Using his self constructed telescope, Galileo viewed distant planets and stars, their behaviour and their surfaces. Still in contribution to the field of Astronomy, Galileo described and illustrated the altering pattern of the SunÃ¢â¬â¢s spots. His proposed explanation for this phenomenon is that these changes in the sunspotsÃ¢â¬â¢ pattern were due to the rotation of the sun. Of all GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific theories, his most controversial was his support for the Copernican opposition against the classic Aristotelian doctrines. The ancient GreeksÃ¢â¬â¢ belief of geocentrism and geostasis were taught in all universities and other academic institutions at his time. But Galileo opposed these views as he believed in the Copernican geokinetic and heliocentric theories. This is a highly controversial stand for Galileo as it led to his encounter with the church, which eventually sentenced him to life imprisonment (Finocchiaro, 1989, p. 7). After being sentenced into life imprisonment, Galileo served his punishment under house arrest until his death. But this did not prevent him from continuing his scientific experiments. When he returned to his studies in physics, particularly motion, he analyzed falling bodies, projectiles, inclined planes, and other important areas that are considered as the foundations of modern physics (PBS, 2002, p. 1). The Inquisition As one of the most popular and accomplished scientists in his time, Galileo was not only under the scrutiny of the public but most essentially by the church. It was however unfortunate that the Father of Modern Science did not escape the fury of religious officials against his beliefs. He greatly suffered from his encounters with the Roman Catholic religion, and paid until the rest of his life (Wudka, 1998). At the University of Pisa, Galileo taught astronomy with the required curriculum. He was compelled to teach the geocentric and geostatic theories that scholars of his time accepted. But due to his exposure to a novel theory by Nicolaus Copernicus when he taught at the University of Padua, he became convinced that the earth and the other planets revolve around sun. This is otherwise known as the heliocentric theory that is currently accepted as a scientific fact. His support for Copernicus meant that he was against the doctrines taught by the Roman Catholic Church. In 1633, he faced the historically renowned Ã¢â¬Å"InquisitionÃ¢â¬ (Chew, 1996). It was in 1611 that Galileo first experienced religious encounters for his Copernican beliefs. Four years prior the inquisition, the Dominican friar named Niccolo Lorini had criticized his views and even filed a complaint against him. In his defence, Galileo argued to the officials in Vatican and to the Grand Duchess Christina that he be given liberty to inquire and defend his ideas in Rome. By the year 1616, scholars proclaimed that heliocentrism is both philosophically absurd and theologically erroneous. Those who advocated this theory were considered heretics. He was ordered by Pope Paul V to refrain from defending the Copernican view and to discuss his beliefs neither in speech nor in writing (Wudka, 1998). The Roman Catholic Church was already experiencing oppositions from different sectors of the society. It was facing battles against armies of Protestants and therefore needed to establish and to demonstrate enough strength against their enemies. With his authority at stake, then churchÃ¢â¬â¢s leader Pope Urban VIII accused Galileo of mockery against him. This placed the renowned scientist before an inquisition which later convicted him guilty of heresy. He was 69 years old during the incident, and therefore was very physically vulnerable. The church threatened him of serious torture if he did not withdraw his support for Copernicus. Therefore, he recanted his theory and was sentenced into life imprisonment, but instead placed under house arrest. He died serving his sentence and it was not until 1992 that the church apologized for its maltreatment towards this man of science (Life, 2000). Legacy Three hundred years after the inquisition, the church recanted its verdict against the men of science that they persecuted. Galileo Galilei, together with Copernicus and other men, was absolved of the crimes they were accused of. But more than his sufferings from the hands of the church, Galileo has left his legacy in the world of science. He would forever be remembered for his contributions in the laws of physics and his astronomical findings. And most of all, his improvement of the microscope would always be regarded as a revolutionary tool in advancing our knowledge of the universe. Generations after ours would never cease to know his name, as it epitomizes both genius and greatness. Galileo Galilei has carved his niche and would forever be remembered as a man who shaped the modern world of science (Hughes and Shaw, 1999). Ã¢â¬Å"I do not feel obliged to believe that the same god who has endowed us with sense, reason and intellect has intended us to forgo their use. Ã¢â¬ -Galileo Galilei References Chew, R. (1996). Galileo Galilei. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www. lucidcafe. com/library/96feb/galileo. html. Finocchiaro, M. A. (1989). The Galileo Affair: A Documentary. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Hughes, E. And Shaw, L. (1999). GalileoÃ¢â¬â¢s Legacy. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www. cogs. susx. ac. uk/users/desw/galileo/life/legacy. html. Kolatkar, M. (2001). Galileo Galilei: Father of Modern Science. Journal of Science Education, 6:3. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from www. iisc. ernet. in/academy/resonance/Aug2001/pdf/Aug2001p3-5. pdf Life (2000). Galileo Sees the Moons of Jupiter and the Earth Moves. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www. life. com/Life/millennium/events/05. html. OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, J. J. , and Robertson, E. F. (2002). Galileo Galilei. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www-history. mcs. st-andrews. ac. uk/Biographies/Galileo. html. PBS (2002). Who Was Galileo Galiei? Retrieved January 31, 2008 from www. pbs. org/wgbh/nova/galileo/media/lrk_handout. pdf. Wudka, J. (1998). Galileo and the Inquisition. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://phyun5. ucr. edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node52. html.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Cambridge Universitys First Certificate Examination (FCE) is probably the most widely respected English learning certificate outside of the United States. Examination centers around the world offer the First Certificate Exam twice a year; once in December and once in June. In fact, the First Certificate is only one of a number of Cambridge examinations aimed at levels from young learners to business English. However, the FCE is certainly the most popular. The tests are given in Cambridge University approved exam centers using Cambridge University approved examiners. Study Strategy Studying for the First Certificate Exam usually involves a long course. First Certificate preparation course can last 120 hours and involve a difficult (and long) exam which contains five papers including: ReadingWritingUse of EnglishListeningSpeaking There are few resources on the Internet for First Certificate preparation. However, you canÃ find practice tests, wordbanks, and practiceÃ exercises. You can use these materials to prepare for the exam or to check to see if your level of English is right for working towards this exam. About the Test Before beginning to study for the First Certificate, it is a good idea to understand the philosophy and purpose behind this standardized test. Practicing techniques on test taking can help you understand general test-taking preparation. The best way to understand the specifics of the FCE is to go straight to the source and visit the introduction to the exam at Cambridge Universitys EFL site. For information about where the First Certificate is placed on the European 5-level scale, you can visit this informative page. Listening Finding FCE-specific listening practice exercises can be difficult, so get creative! Visit the BBCs audio and visual page and listen to or watch various ABC programs. The exam is purely British English, so its best to listen to this classic British radio station.