Thursday, January 16, 2020

Galileo Galilei: Man of Science Essay

Galileo Galilei was an Italian scientist born on February 15, 1564. He lived in a time when people perceived the earth as the center of the universe and when people interpreted the scriptures literally. He originally pursued the field of medicine, but later gained an inclination towards mathematics. He worked to develop the scientific method and to explain the world in mathematical terms. Today, his inventions and discoveries contributed to the establishment of the scientific world’s foundation. Galileo Galilei: Man of Science Galileo Galilei is one of the most revolutionary figures in history who transcended both religious and scientific conventions. The expanse of his accomplishments cover physics, astronomy, and mathematics, all to which his contributions have resulted in significant advances. He lived in a time when truth was persecuted and religion dictates facts of society. But he refused to remain in stagnation and to accept without question. His works reflected both genius and ingenuity, as his life mirrored the depths that human intelligence can reach. Being a highly celebrated scientist, Galileo has proven himself a man who would always exercise the freedom to think, discover, and create. Life and Writings An Italian scientist born on the 15th of February 1564 in the city of Pisa, Galileo Galilei lived in a time when Europeans have only recently discovered the Americas. He was born towards the end of the Renaissance period. His birth was three days prior Michael Angelo’s death, 72 years after the discovery of the Americas, 43 years before the landing of the Mayflower, and two months before the birth of Shakespeare (Fermi and Bernardini, 1961, p. 11). Galileo, as he is more popularly called, was the son of Vincenzo Galilei and Giulia Ammannati. Although originally from Pisa, Italy and lived there for 10 years, Galileo moved to Florence, his Father’s birthplace, to join his family. He was then sent to the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa in order to be educated by the Benedictine monks. This religious order became attractive to the young Galileo, as he incorporated the monastic life with solitude and hermitage. He entered the order and became a noviciate, but his religious life was put to a halt as he faced a strong opposition from his father. Vincenzo Galilei had already intended that his eldest child would practice medicine (O’Connor and Robertson, 2002). Galileo pursued his medical degree at the University of Pisa, as he was urged by his father. But being a physician was never appealing for Galileo, and he only took interests on course subjects concerning mathematics and natural philosophy. This diverted his attention from medicine to his destined field, mathematics and natural sciences. In 1589 at the University of Pisa, he became the chair of mathematics. However, after the death of his father, which compelled him to search for more lucrative means to support his family, Galileo took the position of professor of mathematics at the University of Padua in 1592. Until 1610, he taught geometry, mechanics, and astronomy in this university. This period was very important as Galileo made outstanding discoveries during this time in both pure and applied sciences. He argued against the Aristotelian doctrines on the universe and even believed that Kepler’s Supernova of 1604 occurred far from the Earth. He already silently believed in the Copernican claim of heliocentrism (O’Connor and Robertson, 2002). Galileo had three children with Marina Gamba. But he fathered his son and two daughters out of wedlock. The children’s illegitimate status made Galileo decide that his daughters are not suited for marriage and therefore must enter a religious order. They became nuns of the convent of San Matteo Arceteri where they forever remained. His son, on the other hand, later gained a legitimate status and was able to later marry (Life, 2000). Due to his support for the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo faced the Inquisition of the Catholic Church in 1633. The leaders of the Roman Catholic religion convicted Galileo with the crime of heresy. As part of his punishment, the church ordered that he withdraw his support for Copernicus publicly. He was also given the sentence of life imprisonment, but only served house arrest due to his advanced age. By his age of 72, Galileo suffered from blindness due to cataracts and glaucoma. And in 1642, Galileo Galilei died at Arcetri. This was the very same birth year of another physicist, Isaac Newton (Chew, 1996). One of the most interesting characteristics of his writings is that they are all, except for one, written in the Italian language instead of Latin. Although Italian was his native tongue, the more conventional medium of scientific writing was Latin. Two of his most renowned works are entitled â€Å"Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican† and â€Å"Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences† (Kolatkar, 2001, p. 3). He presented these works in a considerably dramatic and lively manner. Here, he told of the story of a conversation among three characters, Simplicio (representation of Aristotle), Salviati (representation of Galileo), and Sagredo (intelligent layperson). His greatest scientific contributions were contained in these literatures. These highly influenced the â€Å"modern scientific thought – ‘its method of enquiry’ and ‘its criterion of truth† (Kolatkar, 2001, p. 3). He was the responsible for the current scientific method that scientists are employing, and which would last for generations to come. His other famous writings include â€Å"The Little Balance,† â€Å"The Starry Messenger,† â€Å"Letters on Sunspots,† â€Å"Letter to Grand Duchess Christina,† â€Å" Discoros Delle Comete,† and â€Å"The Assayer† (Chew, 1996). Contributions in Astronomy, Physics, Mathematics, and Technology Given the title of â€Å"Father of Modern Science† (Finocchiaro, 1989, p. 1), Galileo Galilei has highly contributed to the advancement of science especially in the field of astronomy, physics, and mathematics. He developed the scientific method, which is very instrumental in the methodology employed by many of the scientists after him. This scientific method allowed scientists to conduct experimentations that are quantitative as opposed to qualitative, repeatable, and unbiased (Finocchiaro, 1989, p. 1). In the field of physics, Galileo notably took interest on falling bodies. At the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, Galileo dropped a cannonball and a feather. Through this simple experiment, he discovered that the falling objects had the same acceleration despite their differences in mass. He found that the speed is dependent on air resistance and not on the object’s mass, which is now one of the most well known laws of physics (PBS, 2002, p. 1). Galileo’s mathematical inclinations led him to developing a certain method in solving problems. He reduced these problems into ordinary lay terms and adapted them into a common-sense logic level. He used this in formulating analyses and in resolving the problems into simplified mathematical terms. This proved to be successful as he was able to describe and experiment on motion, which eventually helped Isaac Newton in mathematically describing his Law of Inertia (Chew, 1996). Galileo is also known for his technological contributions. Galileo was naturally observant and very curious with his surroundings. He enjoyed exploring and experimenting on mechanical objects. This interest led him to invent a simply designed thermometer, a geometric military compass, and a modified telescope. It is with the latter invention that Galileo was able to explore the celestial bodies. Galileo observed the moon’s surface and found that it has great similarities with the Earth. He also made the very interesting astronomical observation on Jupiter and its four moons and on Venus and its different phases. Using his self constructed telescope, Galileo viewed distant planets and stars, their behaviour and their surfaces. Still in contribution to the field of Astronomy, Galileo described and illustrated the altering pattern of the Sun’s spots. His proposed explanation for this phenomenon is that these changes in the sunspots’ pattern were due to the rotation of the sun. Of all Galileo’s scientific theories, his most controversial was his support for the Copernican opposition against the classic Aristotelian doctrines. The ancient Greeks’ belief of geocentrism and geostasis were taught in all universities and other academic institutions at his time. But Galileo opposed these views as he believed in the Copernican geokinetic and heliocentric theories. This is a highly controversial stand for Galileo as it led to his encounter with the church, which eventually sentenced him to life imprisonment (Finocchiaro, 1989, p. 7). After being sentenced into life imprisonment, Galileo served his punishment under house arrest until his death. But this did not prevent him from continuing his scientific experiments. When he returned to his studies in physics, particularly motion, he analyzed falling bodies, projectiles, inclined planes, and other important areas that are considered as the foundations of modern physics (PBS, 2002, p. 1). The Inquisition As one of the most popular and accomplished scientists in his time, Galileo was not only under the scrutiny of the public but most essentially by the church. It was however unfortunate that the Father of Modern Science did not escape the fury of religious officials against his beliefs. He greatly suffered from his encounters with the Roman Catholic religion, and paid until the rest of his life (Wudka, 1998). At the University of Pisa, Galileo taught astronomy with the required curriculum. He was compelled to teach the geocentric and geostatic theories that scholars of his time accepted. But due to his exposure to a novel theory by Nicolaus Copernicus when he taught at the University of Padua, he became convinced that the earth and the other planets revolve around sun. This is otherwise known as the heliocentric theory that is currently accepted as a scientific fact. His support for Copernicus meant that he was against the doctrines taught by the Roman Catholic Church. In 1633, he faced the historically renowned â€Å"Inquisition† (Chew, 1996). It was in 1611 that Galileo first experienced religious encounters for his Copernican beliefs. Four years prior the inquisition, the Dominican friar named Niccolo Lorini had criticized his views and even filed a complaint against him. In his defence, Galileo argued to the officials in Vatican and to the Grand Duchess Christina that he be given liberty to inquire and defend his ideas in Rome. By the year 1616, scholars proclaimed that heliocentrism is both philosophically absurd and theologically erroneous. Those who advocated this theory were considered heretics. He was ordered by Pope Paul V to refrain from defending the Copernican view and to discuss his beliefs neither in speech nor in writing (Wudka, 1998). The Roman Catholic Church was already experiencing oppositions from different sectors of the society. It was facing battles against armies of Protestants and therefore needed to establish and to demonstrate enough strength against their enemies. With his authority at stake, then church’s leader Pope Urban VIII accused Galileo of mockery against him. This placed the renowned scientist before an inquisition which later convicted him guilty of heresy. He was 69 years old during the incident, and therefore was very physically vulnerable. The church threatened him of serious torture if he did not withdraw his support for Copernicus. Therefore, he recanted his theory and was sentenced into life imprisonment, but instead placed under house arrest. He died serving his sentence and it was not until 1992 that the church apologized for its maltreatment towards this man of science (Life, 2000). Legacy Three hundred years after the inquisition, the church recanted its verdict against the men of science that they persecuted. Galileo Galilei, together with Copernicus and other men, was absolved of the crimes they were accused of. But more than his sufferings from the hands of the church, Galileo has left his legacy in the world of science. He would forever be remembered for his contributions in the laws of physics and his astronomical findings. And most of all, his improvement of the microscope would always be regarded as a revolutionary tool in advancing our knowledge of the universe. Generations after ours would never cease to know his name, as it epitomizes both genius and greatness. Galileo Galilei has carved his niche and would forever be remembered as a man who shaped the modern world of science (Hughes and Shaw, 1999). â€Å"I do not feel obliged to believe that the same god who has endowed us with sense, reason and intellect has intended us to forgo their use. † -Galileo Galilei References Chew, R. (1996). Galileo Galilei. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www. lucidcafe. com/library/96feb/galileo. html. Finocchiaro, M. A. (1989). The Galileo Affair: A Documentary. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Hughes, E. And Shaw, L. (1999). Galileo’s Legacy. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www. cogs. susx. ac. uk/users/desw/galileo/life/legacy. html. Kolatkar, M. (2001). Galileo Galilei: Father of Modern Science. Journal of Science Education, 6:3. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from www. iisc. ernet. in/academy/resonance/Aug2001/pdf/Aug2001p3-5. pdf Life (2000). Galileo Sees the Moons of Jupiter and the Earth Moves. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www. life. com/Life/millennium/events/05. html. O’Connor, J. J. , and Robertson, E. F. (2002). Galileo Galilei. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://www-history. mcs. st-andrews. ac. uk/Biographies/Galileo. html. PBS (2002). Who Was Galileo Galiei? Retrieved January 31, 2008 from www. pbs. org/wgbh/nova/galileo/media/lrk_handout. pdf. Wudka, J. (1998). Galileo and the Inquisition. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://phyun5. ucr. edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node52. html.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Preparing for the First Certificate Examination for Free

Cambridge Universitys First Certificate Examination (FCE) is probably the most widely respected English learning certificate outside of the United States. Examination centers around the world offer the First Certificate Exam twice a year; once in December and once in June. In fact, the First Certificate is only one of a number of Cambridge examinations aimed at levels from young learners to business English. However, the FCE is certainly the most popular. The tests are given in Cambridge University approved exam centers using Cambridge University approved examiners. Study Strategy Studying for the First Certificate Exam usually involves a long course. First Certificate preparation course can last 120 hours and involve a difficult (and long) exam which contains five papers including: ReadingWritingUse of EnglishListeningSpeaking There are few resources on the Internet for First Certificate preparation. However, you can  find practice tests, wordbanks, and practice  exercises. You can use these materials to prepare for the exam or to check to see if your level of English is right for working towards this exam. About the Test Before beginning to study for the First Certificate, it is a good idea to understand the philosophy and purpose behind this standardized test. Practicing techniques on test taking can help you understand general test-taking preparation. The best way to understand the specifics of the FCE is to go straight to the source and visit the introduction to the exam at Cambridge Universitys EFL site. For information about where the First Certificate is placed on the European 5-level scale, you can visit this informative page. Listening Finding FCE-specific listening practice exercises can be difficult, so get creative! Visit the BBCs audio and visual page and listen to or watch various ABC programs. The exam is purely British English, so its best to listen to this classic British radio station.

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Domestic And International Measures Of International Crime

Both domestic and international measures are somewhat effective in dealing with international crime. Both crimes against the international community and Transnational crimes represent both positive outcomes in dealing with international crime, thus, exemplify issues in key areas. Through intergovernmental organizations such as the International Criminal Court and Operation Sovereign Borders (OSB), international crime Is effectively dealt with. Hence, problems such as extradition and people smuggling are hard to contain. These four issues will also be discussed in light of key effectiveness criteria, including equality, access, resources and the protection of rights. Crimes against the international community are a collection of offences that are recognised by the international community as being of universal concern. However the prosecution of crimes against the international community can be controversial. Such crimes may be committed in the context of military conflict. They may be highly politically motivated, or they may have been ordered or committed by the state itself. The establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2002 was a significant development in the law of crimes against the international community. The independent international court established by the Rome Statute, acts as a last resort for crimes fitting into the three categories of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Due to Australia’s Dualistic system, both the War crimes ActShow MoreRelatedInternational Criminal Justice Trends1122 Words   |  5 Pages Introduction Crime has continually evolved thus becoming more complicated especially due to technological developments. The other factors that have contributed to crime complexity includes demographic changes for males below 30 years of age which is a crime-prone age limit; and macro-economic scales that include the unemployment rate, consumers spending power and economic stability of the region. These factors revolve aroundRead MoreDomestic Terrorism Is America s Greatest Threat : Mass Shootings And Hate Crimes1389 Words   |  6 PagesDomestic Terrorism is America s Greatest Threat: Mass Shootings and Hate Crimes I. Introduction The United States has been in a national state of emergency fighting a war on terrorism since September 11, 2001. The intelligence communities have pursued and tracked down terrorist suspects who pose a direct threat to this country, yet one of the greatest threat to this country is the astronomical number of mass shootings and hate crimes that have occurred in this country post 9/11. The UnitedRead MoreDomestic Terrorism And International Terrorism1335 Words   |  6 Pagesbeen as impactful as the 9/11 attack but most recently domestic terrorists have carried out most of the attacks. The government should take the measures necessary and focus more on domestic terrorism than international terrorism for now, because domestic terrorists are already here and they can attack at anytime. International Terrorism has most of the attention when on the topic of terrorism but we should be paying more attention to Domestic Terrorism since they are here locally based and they alreadyRead MoreUnited Law Of Public International Law1414 Words   |  6 PagesReport to International Law First concerning the fear that the concept of state sovereignty in public international law is frequently overlooked by politicians, the media and others. Introduction. International Law First has asked for a report concerning the impact of public international law on the concept of state sovereignty in the UK. This report will examine the limits that public international law imposes on state sovereignty and the effect that this has on the balance of power withinRead MoreNdi. 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In fact, the Office of the Prosecutor’s prosecutorial policy is to focus on those who, having regard to the evidence gathered, bear the greatest responsibility for the crimes, and does not take into account any official position that may be held by the alleged perpetrators’. Thus, the ICC extends noRead MoreDomestic And International Terroristic Acts1473 Words   |  6 PagesDomestic and international terroristic acts have been a part of our society for many years with the intensity of those c rimes increasing as the population increases. This phenomenon is bound to remain in our world as long as there are people who oppose viewpoints and idealism of other people. Based on whether the terrorist group is domestic or international organization, there are differences and similarities in how terror acts are carried out. According to â€Å"section 802 of the USA PATRIOT Act theRead More International Criminal Court Essay examples1484 Words   |  6 PagesInternational Criminal Court Allegations of war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity have undoubtedly received unprecedented press coverage in recent years – more than at any time since Nuremberg. This is not because the incidences of such barbarities have increased, but simply because those crimes are brought to us more rapidly these days by the electronic media. Since the early 1990’s the international community has witnessed of a variety of criminal tribunalsRead MoreCount the Cost is a Collaborative Effort to Fight the War on Drugs1696 Words   |  7 Pagesto reduce the unintended costs of the war on drugs. The Count the Costs project aims to highlight the negative impacts of the war on drugs in seven key policy areas: Development and Security; Public health; Human Rights; Stigma and Discrimination; Crime; The Environment; and Economics. The project calls upon world leaders and UN agencies to quantify the unintended negative consequences of the current approach to drugs, and assess the potential costs and benefits of alternative approaches. (Count theRead MoreWhat Can Post Democracy Tell Us About Mncs And Extraterritorial Violations Of Human Rights?1195 Words   |  5 Pagesdescribes some of the efforts at the international and domestic levels to regulate corporations in relation to this issue. I conclude by stating that new international principles and innovative hybrid sch emes are playing a valuable role in norm creation and standard-setting, but the enforcement of these principles remains limited. Furthermore, corporations have largely succeeded to date in their lobbying efforts to remain free of any direct obligations under international law. The term ‘corporation’ encompasses

Monday, December 23, 2019

Converse case study - 1357 Words

Ning Zhang Intro to Marketing(MKT333) Ms. Susan Carder Dec. 20th 2014 Case Study#3 Converse 1. How would you define the needs, wants, and demands of the Converse customer? Needs lead to wants, wants lead to demands, demands lead to perception. Consumers want stylish shoes, so they demand that they be affordable. A need is a state of deprivation, and some needs according to Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs are more crucial than others, in this case Converse customers need shoes to protect their feet, this is a basic need. A want is the form human needs take as they are shaped by culture and individual personality. Converse customers want trendy shoes that are popular, and well priced. Converse offers and satisfies both of these wants.†¦show more content†¦Allow me to try to analyze why Converse from the industry giant to be acquired by Nike. Converse is the earliest brand ruling of the NBA, although after 50 years, Adidas has become the worlds first sports brand, but in the NBA games, Converse is well-deserved hegemony. From a number of photos and videos of earlie r year you can see, almost all of NBA players are wearing Converse shoes in the game. Converse has been able to guide the 1970s NBA, in my opinion there is a very important reason is that, the Basketball Sport is still far from such a powerful influence of today, so when time the industry leader Adidas also did not pay attention to this market. These factors give Converse development has created a relatively comfortable environment. Comfortable environment means lack of effective competition, the lack of competition leads to very slow progress of Converse products. Before Nike reached the NBA to a few decades, although Converse basketball shoes improvement is growing, almost no qualitative leap. In 1982, Nike launched carrying air cushion technology for AirForce1 basketball shoes, then compared Converse products and AirForce1, Converse’s almost no technology content. While in the 1980s, Nike has launched a landmark product, but Converse did not immediate realize crisis, beca use in the 1980s, Converse has the leagues most powerful Larry Joe Bird and Earvin Johnson as spokespersons, and that time Michael Jordan is only fledgling from hisShow MoreRelatedEssay about Converse Case Study1803 Words   |  8 PagesConverse: Shaping the Customer Experience They dominated the basketball courts – both amateur and professional – for more than forty years. The first U.S. Olympic basketball team wore them, and Dr. J made them famous in the NBA. Punk rocker Joey Ramone made them standard issue for cult musicians; indeed, Kurt Cobain even donned a pair when he committed suicide. Today, a broad range of consumers, from the nerdiest of high school students to A-list celebrities, claim them as their own. What areRead Moreunit 10 P5 M31714 Words   |  7 Pagesmethods that can be used to support children/ young people and their families where abuse is suspected or confirmed. M3 Assess strategies and methods used to minimize the harm to children, young people and their families where abuse is confirmed. Case study: Paul is 10 years old. His teachers that he might be suffering from abuse at home have reported it to the Local authority. He will be starting secondary school in a month’s time. The local authority is due to put him in care temporarily whilst investigationsRead MoreResearch Papers1085 Words   |  5 PagesCase Studies for Conflict Resolution: A key element in civil rights training Wisconsin  WIC      CONFLICT  RESOLUTION:  CASE  STUDIES   The following case studies match the scenarios in the online training. 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Sunday, December 15, 2019

Animal Testing Free Essays

Is Animal Testing Wrong? Would you want to put your best four legged friend through torture to find out if something, such as lipstick, would okay for humans? I know, for sure, I would never want to put any animal through these horrible experiments. Most people think that animal testing is something we have to do in order to protect ourselves from new products. Which is not true, we would survive perfectly fine with the millions of products we have now. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal Testing or any similar topic only for you Order Now These beloved animals don’t deserve to put through such torture. Animal testing is costing many animals their lives and is costing many of us millions of dollars. More than 100 million animals, ranging from mice to monkeys, are suffering and dying in cruel chemical, drug, food and cosmetic tests, biology lessons, medical training exercises, and curiosity-driven medical experiments (â€Å"Animals Used for Experimentation†, n. d. ). All these animals can do is sit and wait for the pain, caused by the horrible procedures, to come their way. While the animals who were already tested on, are wishing the pain would just go away. Majority of the helpless creatures die because they lose minds caused by stress or fear. Many of the other animals die with no purpose of their life, because many of the substances will never see approval for consumption of humans. Also many animals have to be put down because they become so nervous that they start to become aggressive and then they have no use. â€Å"Animals Used for Experimentation† (n. d. ) states that in order to test cosmetics, household cleaning items, and other consumer products, hundreds of thousands of animals are poisoned, blinded, and killed every year by cruel corporations. This is only the major disagreement with the torture done to animals. One huge way the animals are tortured is that most of the experiment animals are breed and raised just to be sent to laboratories. In fact a lot of these animals are bought really young to help reduce the stress of being in the cages in the labs. Therefore most of these animals have never got to know what grass feels or smells like. Most of the dogs have never played fetch with an owner. Most pregnant cats that are in animal shelters are bought by companies that test on animals. Therefore the kittens can be tested on by baby products or kept until they are a couple years old. â€Å"Animal Testing Facts† (n. . ) claims that every hour 2,000 cats and 3,500 dogs are born in labs all over the nation. Most importantly, none of these neglected animals have ever and will never know what it is like to be loved by a human or know what it is like to be rewarded by a human with a treat or a belly rub. The only things these animals think, about when a human comes by or to their cage, are that they have to duck down and hope they keep walking. They feel that when a human touches them, that means the pain is coming. Isn’t that the complete opposite purpose that these wonderful creatures are living with us? We are supposed to be the protector of the animals who can’t speak or defend themselves. We are supposed to be their best friends. Some of the experiments done on the animals are unbelievable! Mice and rats are forced to inhale toxic fumes, dogs are force-fed pesticides, and rabbits have corrosive chemicals rubbed onto their skin and eyes (â€Å"Animals used for Experimentation†, n. d. ). Many animals become so freaked out that they start to kill each other. They also will attack themselves, such as: pulling out their own hair or feathers, eating their own skin, or starving themselves to death. Some major companies that test on animals are: Gillette, they rub their products into rabbits’ eyes and then sit back and wait to see if they scream because the product is burning their eyes; Nair, they rub their products on the fur of many dogs and other furry animals; and Tide and Windex, also force feed and cover animals in their products. Those are just a few of the thousands of companies that test on animals. Many of the results found are unreliable because the animal could have easily died from one of the reasons I have already talked about. The results could also be unreliable because human bodies and animal bodies can have a different reaction or one may not even have a reaction at all to a certain product. One major disturbing thing about the reactions of animals I that most rabbits and other animals will get huge holes in their sides because a product will eat away at their skin and organs. Many other sad reactions that happen to the animals are that they could get seizures, and some forget what they are suppose to do such as drink water or eat their food. Even if animals have a bad reaction to certain products, some of these products will still go to market and be sold to the people. More than 100,000 people have been hospitalized and later died from toxic reactions to medications in 1994 that were not predicted by animal tests (â€Å"Animal Testing Facts, n. d. ). Most of families get tired of paying for expenses for their family pet or pets. Could you imagine having to pay for the food, housing, or care for the millions of animals? Or just paying for price of millions of animals? This is a lot of money that is wasted; animals are far from being cheap. Price is another major setback of animal testing. The price for the experiment animals, alone, has caused a lot of the United States’ financial debt. According to â€Å"Animals Used in Experimentations† (n. d. ) the Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Toxicology Program, and the Department of Agriculture are a couple of government agencies that subject animals to many painful and cruel experiments. Another interesting fact is that a big percent of the money that is wasted on animal testing comes from United State taxpayers. It is estimated that around $12 billion, of taxpayers’ money, is put toward animal testing. One way to help with the cost is to test animals are small animals only, not animals that cost or ones that require more care. There are many ways to help get rid of animal testing. The most effective thing to do is to stop buying the products that are from companies, who test on animals. This way they won’t be making any money on their products and therefore they won’t have the money to spend on more animals or the care for the hundreds of animals they already have. The main argue of why we need to have animal testing is that it helps researchers improve health issues and find new medicines. This is a good point but what is pointless about it is that a lot of the medicines are almost the same medicines that we have right now. Which would prove that we could live perfectly fine without different and/or new medicines. Another point that people, who are for animal testing, have is that they say it protects people from testing on other people, because these tests could hurt or kill the person who is being tested on. This point is somewhat true but it does not help stop the people who are abused every day or the ones who are murdered. The last main argue for why we need animal testing is that it ensures the safety of the new products. The statement is barely even true, because most of the products that pass the animals could have a completely different reaction to a human. Like I said before, that animals are in an unfamiliar environment and they are so stressed that their bodies might not even have a reaction to a deadly substance. I hope that next time you put on some make up or take some pills to help get rid of a little headache, you will think about the hundreds loving animals that had to suffer for months or the animals that were killed, in order for you to have these small luxuries. The next time you pay taxes I hope you ask yourself if you money goes to help researchers torture millions of animals. When you think about all of the money we waste and all of the lives we steal away from animals, you will agree with me that we need to find a better way to test new products. Or we could hope that the scientists will be able to find a more humane way to test them on animals. References Animals used for experimentation. (n. d. ). Retrieved April 9, 2012, from http://www. peta. org/? issues/? animals-used-for-experimentation/? default2. aspx Animal testing facts. (n. d. ). Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www. animaltestingfacts. zoomshare. com/ Dixon, T. (2009, April 7). Animal experimentation. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://www. idebate. org/? debatabase/? topic_details. hp? topicID=7 Gerty. (2010, December 11). The pro’s and cons. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://levmm1. wordpress. com/? 2010/? 12/? 11/? the-pros-and-cons/ Murnaghan, I. (2011, July 1). Using animals for testing: pros versus cons. Retrieved March 27, 2012, from http://www. aboutanimaltesting. co. uk/? using-animals-testing-pros-versus-cons. html Shandilya, R. (2011, December 16). Animal testing pros. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www. buzzle. com/? articles /? animal-testing-pros. html How to cite Animal Testing, Essay examples Animal Testing Free Essays Is Animal Testing Wrong? Would you want to put your best four legged friend through torture to find out if something, such as lipstick, would okay for humans? I know, for sure, I would never want to put any animal through these horrible experiments. Most people think that animal testing is something we have to do in order to protect ourselves from new products. Which is not true, we would survive perfectly fine with the millions of products we have now. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal Testing or any similar topic only for you Order Now These beloved animals don’t deserve to put through such torture. Animal testing is costing many animals their lives and is costing many of us millions of dollars. More than 100 million animals, ranging from mice to monkeys, are suffering and dying in cruel chemical, drug, food and cosmetic tests, biology lessons, medical training exercises, and curiosity-driven medical experiments (â€Å"Animals Used for Experimentation†, n. d. ). All these animals can do is sit and wait for the pain, caused by the horrible procedures, to come their way. While the animals who were already tested on, are wishing the pain would just go away. Majority of the helpless creatures die because they lose minds caused by stress or fear. Many of the other animals die with no purpose of their life, because many of the substances will never see approval for consumption of humans. Also many animals have to be put down because they become so nervous that they start to become aggressive and then they have no use. â€Å"Animals Used for Experimentation† (n. d. ) states that in order to test cosmetics, household cleaning items, and other consumer products, hundreds of thousands of animals are poisoned, blinded, and killed every year by cruel corporations. This is only the major disagreement with the torture done to animals. One huge way the animals are tortured is that most of the experiment animals are breed and raised just to be sent to laboratories. In fact a lot of these animals are bought really young to help reduce the stress of being in the cages in the labs. Therefore most of these animals have never got to know what grass feels or smells like. Most of the dogs have never played fetch with an owner. Most pregnant cats that are in animal shelters are bought by companies that test on animals. Therefore the kittens can be tested on by baby products or kept until they are a couple years old. â€Å"Animal Testing Facts† (n. . ) claims that every hour 2,000 cats and 3,500 dogs are born in labs all over the nation. Most importantly, none of these neglected animals have ever and will never know what it is like to be loved by a human or know what it is like to be rewarded by a human with a treat or a belly rub. The only things these animals think, about when a human comes by or to their cage, are that they have to duck down and hope they keep walking. They feel that when a human touches them, that means the pain is coming. Isn’t that the complete opposite purpose that these wonderful creatures are living with us? We are supposed to be the protector of the animals who can’t speak or defend themselves. We are supposed to be their best friends. Some of the experiments done on the animals are unbelievable! Mice and rats are forced to inhale toxic fumes, dogs are force-fed pesticides, and rabbits have corrosive chemicals rubbed onto their skin and eyes (â€Å"Animals used for Experimentation†, n. d. ). Many animals become so freaked out that they start to kill each other. They also will attack themselves, such as: pulling out their own hair or feathers, eating their own skin, or starving themselves to death. Some major companies that test on animals are: Gillette, they rub their products into rabbits’ eyes and then sit back and wait to see if they scream because the product is burning their eyes; Nair, they rub their products on the fur of many dogs and other furry animals; and Tide and Windex, also force feed and cover animals in their products. Those are just a few of the thousands of companies that test on animals. Many of the results found are unreliable because the animal could have easily died from one of the reasons I have already talked about. The results could also be unreliable because human bodies and animal bodies can have a different reaction or one may not even have a reaction at all to a certain product. One major disturbing thing about the reactions of animals I that most rabbits and other animals will get huge holes in their sides because a product will eat away at their skin and organs. Many other sad reactions that happen to the animals are that they could get seizures, and some forget what they are suppose to do such as drink water or eat their food. Even if animals have a bad reaction to certain products, some of these products will still go to market and be sold to the people. More than 100,000 people have been hospitalized and later died from toxic reactions to medications in 1994 that were not predicted by animal tests (â€Å"Animal Testing Facts, n. d. ). Most of families get tired of paying for expenses for their family pet or pets. Could you imagine having to pay for the food, housing, or care for the millions of animals? Or just paying for price of millions of animals? This is a lot of money that is wasted; animals are far from being cheap. Price is another major setback of animal testing. The price for the experiment animals, alone, has caused a lot of the United States’ financial debt. According to â€Å"Animals Used in Experimentations† (n. d. ) the Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Toxicology Program, and the Department of Agriculture are a couple of government agencies that subject animals to many painful and cruel experiments. Another interesting fact is that a big percent of the money that is wasted on animal testing comes from United State taxpayers. It is estimated that around $12 billion, of taxpayers’ money, is put toward animal testing. One way to help with the cost is to test animals are small animals only, not animals that cost or ones that require more care. There are many ways to help get rid of animal testing. The most effective thing to do is to stop buying the products that are from companies, who test on animals. This way they won’t be making any money on their products and therefore they won’t have the money to spend on more animals or the care for the hundreds of animals they already have. The main argue of why we need to have animal testing is that it helps researchers improve health issues and find new medicines. This is a good point but what is pointless about it is that a lot of the medicines are almost the same medicines that we have right now. Which would prove that we could live perfectly fine without different and/or new medicines. Another point that people, who are for animal testing, have is that they say it protects people from testing on other people, because these tests could hurt or kill the person who is being tested on. This point is somewhat true but it does not help stop the people who are abused every day or the ones who are murdered. The last main argue for why we need animal testing is that it ensures the safety of the new products. The statement is barely even true, because most of the products that pass the animals could have a completely different reaction to a human. Like I said before, that animals are in an unfamiliar environment and they are so stressed that their bodies might not even have a reaction to a deadly substance. I hope that next time you put on some make up or take some pills to help get rid of a little headache, you will think about the hundreds loving animals that had to suffer for months or the animals that were killed, in order for you to have these small luxuries. The next time you pay taxes I hope you ask yourself if you money goes to help researchers torture millions of animals. When you think about all of the money we waste and all of the lives we steal away from animals, you will agree with me that we need to find a better way to test new products. Or we could hope that the scientists will be able to find a more humane way to test them on animals. References Animals used for experimentation. (n. d. ). Retrieved April 9, 2012, from http://www. peta. org/? issues/? animals-used-for-experimentation/? default2. aspx Animal testing facts. (n. d. ). Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www. animaltestingfacts. zoomshare. com/ Dixon, T. (2009, April 7). Animal experimentation. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://www. idebate. org/? debatabase/? topic_details. hp? topicID=7 Gerty. (2010, December 11). The pro’s and cons. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://levmm1. wordpress. com/? 2010/? 12/? 11/? the-pros-and-cons/ Murnaghan, I. (2011, July 1). Using animals for testing: pros versus cons. Retrieved March 27, 2012, from http://www. aboutanimaltesting. co. uk/? using-animals-testing-pros-versus-cons. html Shandilya, R. (2011, December 16). Animal testing pros. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www. buzzle. com/? articles /? animal-testing-pros. html How to cite Animal Testing, Papers Animal testing Free Essays Animal testing should be outlawed because it is hurtful and not necessary. Tests that are performed on animals range from them being forced to ingest different household cleaning products and then monitored to see the results and new cosmetics placed on their skin to find out if there are any side effects that would be harmful to a human. There are even some practices where animals are forced to ingest a medicine before it is put on the market to make sure that there are no life- threatening illnesses that will be caused to a human from taking the product. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal testing or any similar topic only for you Order Now    In order to test corrosive chemicals like Savage Acid and Goodbye Graffiti, rabbits backs are shaved and corrosive chemicals are applied onto their raw skin and left for up to two weeks. The chemicals burn the skin and the rabbits are given no pain relief.   After the testing period the rabbits used are then killed. (Stop Animal Tests) Today the term â€Å"vivisection† is used.   Vivisection is defined as â€Å"cutting while still alive† but it is more commonly used today as any harmful experiment or test that is performed on an animal.   Animal experimentation involves the incarceration of animals and poisoning, mutilation, disease and killing of those individuals. It is arguably the most brutal and most severe form of violence in the modern world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires by law that pesticides be tested on dogs, who are shoved into â€Å"inhalation chambers† where they try in vain to escape the deadly poisons that are pumped in. The Food and Drug Administration requires companies marketing fluoride products to swab the teeth of 200 rats with the test substance for two weeks, at which time the animals are killed and their heads baked in an oven for an hour and your tax dollars are funding these types of experiments. Some businesses that test on animals include:   Clorox, Clairol, Calvin Klein Cosmetics, Cover Girl, Dial Corporation, Johnson Johnson, and Playtex Products Incorporated.   It is said that an estimated 50,000 animals die due to the testing on them that Proctor and Gamble performs on them every year.   â€Å"Secretly-filmed video evidence of PG sponsored experiments at Huntingdon Life Sciences (a major multi-national contract animal testing company) shows the brutal treatment and killing of 48 monkeys.† (Uncaged Campaign) However, since cosmetics and household items are not required to be tested on animals and since there are non-animal alternatives, it is difficult to understand why companies continue to conduct these cruel tests on animals.   The two main reasons that all companies do not become cruelty free are: the fear for human safety and the fear of product liability suits. Founded in 1981 was Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (Zawistowski), a place that is dedicated to helping find new methods to replace the laboratory animals that are being tested on.   The CAAT vision states: â€Å"To be a leading force in the development and use of reduction, refinement, and replacement alternatives in research, testing, and education to protect and enhance the health of the public.†Ã‚   (Zawistowski)   The main disadvantages to animal tests, according to John Frazier and Alan Goldberg, of CAAT, are: â€Å"Animal discomfort and death, species-extrapolation problems, and excessive time and expense.†Ã‚   (Zawistowski) Revlon Cosmetics was one of the first large companies to fund the research for alternative testing with a contribution of $750,000 to the Rockefeller University in 1979. (www.animalsavingsclub.com) Keep in mind that, while companies search for alternatives, animal use actually INCREASES because the old test (using animals) must be done alongside the new test (without animals) to ensure consistent results. So what types of alternatives are being used today?   The most common alternatives that are used today are: in-vitro tests, computer software, and even human â€Å"clinical tests†.   The use of animal cells, organs, and tissue cultures are also deemed as alternatives, however animal lives are still sacrificed for the use of their parts. (Stevens) How can someone that kills a dog in the middle of a street in broad daylight have repercussions to abide by but the companies that slowly kill animals with the tests that they perform on them not have any repercussions to pay?   There are laws in place for the safety of animals that are on our streets or that live with us as companions, but there are no laws that say it is wrong for businesses to slice a dog open while it is still alive with no anesthesia just to take tests of its kidney.   The animals can not tell the scientist that they don’t want to be tested on, but humans can.   We need to talk for the animals and help stop this cruel and inhumane treatment.   There are many other ways that products and medicine can be tested; the use of innocent animals is no longer needed. Works Cited Featured Cruelty-Free Company: Revlon. 2005. 17 Dec. 2005   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.animalsavingsclub.com/company_Revlon.asp Stevens, Karen Lee. â€Å"ALL FOR ANIMALS – Cruelty-Free Living.† All for Animals. 2000.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   17 Dec. 2005 http://www.allforanimals.com/schoolproject.htm Stop Animal Tests. 17 Dec. 2005 www.stopanimaltests.com â€Å"UNCAGED CAMPAIGNS – WHO CARES WINS.† Uncaged Campaign. 2005. 17 Dec.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2005 www.uncaged.co.uk Zawistowski, Stephen L. Animal Use in the Lab. â€Å"The more things change†¦Ã¢â‚¬  ASPCA   Ã‚   Animal Watch, Spring 2003, Vol. 23, No. 1. http://caat.jhsph.edu/issues/aspca-  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   animaluse.htm          How to cite Animal testing, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Tools and Consumer Retention in Retail Marketing †MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Tools and Consumer Retention in Retail Marketing. Answer: Introduction: The marketing mix is the combination of the various factors which in influential on the marketing activities of the firm (Armstrong et al. 2015). The marketing mix defines the putting of the right products in the right place with right price and through right promotion (Hashim and Hamzah 2014). However, the marketing mix also denotes the placement of the products for the right people with proper physical activities of the firm. The 7ps of marketing mix is the modification of the 4ps of marketing mix. The chosen company Tesco is one of the supermarket leading in the international market. one of the major competitors of the company is the Sainsbury. This section applies the 7ps of marketing mix on both the company in order to identify the difference and similarities with the both for marketing activities. The 7ps of marketing mix are: A wide range of products is offered by Tesco which includes clothing, electronics, foods, financial services and others. The numerous products of different categories are capable of meeting the needs of the customer. In addition, for identifying the needs of the customers, the company has expanded to the online marketing. In the retail stores, the company offers free music and grocery delivery service to the along with the 40,000 other products (Al Muala and Al Qurneh 2012). The consumers are given provided with the options to choose from the variety of the products which includes different brand, regions, production type, international cuisine in foods and so on. On the other hand, the Sainsbury also provides its customers with the choice of varied range of products such as the toiletries, foods, stationaries and others. the company in its retail stores offers 30,000 variety of products. Unlike Tesco, the company has categories its products in terms of premium quality, organic, Be Good to Yourself, Home Collection and many others. In terms of attracting the customers, Tesco attempts to maintain the low price of the products without the lowering the quality of the same. The company has achieved remarkable accomplishment and the competitive advantages in the international market leaving one of the oldest brand Sainsbury behind. In addition, Tesco uses strategies which allow the customers to collect points for future purchase which converts into money at the time of purchasing (Christopher and Peck 2012). Apart from this, Tesco uses price-promotional strategy for loyal customer which provide them discount. The pricing strategy of Sainsbury is based on the quality of the products. Unlike Tesco, the price of products is determined not in terms of the customer preferences, but in terms of the quality of the products. This means that the higher the quality is, the higher the price. The company uses the competitive price policy rather that the price cutting policy. The headquarter of Tesco is situated at the Chestnut, Hertfordshire, England, whereas the stores of the company are spread all over the world. The firm uses both online and offline distribution channels for its products and service. The stores of the firm are of six different kinds such as Tesco Extra, Tesco Metro, Tesco Express, Tesco Homeplus, Tesco Compact and Tesco Superstore. As all the customers are not comfortable in the supermarket, the company uses smaller stores and online forum Tesco Direct for those customers. Sainsbury has 714 convenience stores and 598 supermarkets across the world. The company offers home delivery service along with the online shopping facilities (Melis et al. 2015). Sainsbury initially managed the distribution channels by its own, but after 1970 the distribution channel is handled by DHL, NFT and others. The low price strategy of Tesco is one of the advantages which influences the promotions of the company. The company uses digital advertisements, promotional discounts offerings, charitable events sponsorship, point of sales strategies and so on for the promotions of the products as well as the brand. The promotional activities of the firm are focused on the low price and all the promotional strategies are based on the same which not only increases sales of the products but also secure the brand image in the public. On the other hand, Sainsbury is concerned with the brand image and for securing the same it uses the above the line (ATL) and below the line (BTL) promotional strategies (Bashar, 2012). The company also uses the celebrity endorsement strategies along with the digital media marketing. In addition, the company uses its CSR strategies for promotional purpose. Tesco are enriched with excellent, competent and skilled sales staffs who contribute to the success of the firm (Andreti et al. 2013). The company uses various motivational programs for the workers. On the other hand, Sainsbury is also privileged with efficient staffs. Unlike Tesco, Sainsbury uses training program for enhancing the skills of the labors. Stores of Tesco are not like Sainsbury with excellently furnished features. Tesco stores are minimal and clean whereas Sainsbury stores are attractive variedly organized. This is evident from the detail of 7ps of the marketing mix that both the company uses different marketing strategies for the marketing of its products. Tesco has remarkably achieved the leading position in the international market of retail stores, whereas Sainsbury is lacking behind despite being one of the old company in the market (Bojei et al. 2013). Both the company offer wide and varied range of products to the consumers along with the several advantages facilities. The difference is seen in the promotion and the price of the products. Tesco uses the low price strategy for its promotion while Sainsbury focuses on the quality of the products. On the other hand, the similarities are found within the two companies in terms of the process as both the organizations are emphasizing on the online marketing as well as shopping facilities. However, the overall analysis of the marketing mix of Tesco and Sainsbury makes it clear that the marketing strategies of Tesco is more effective in terms of profitability of the firm. Tesco is one of the biggest and leading supermarket in UK ad successfully running its business across the world. The marketing goals of the company is to achieve the provide the best products to the customers with the possible lowest price. In addition, the marketing objectives of the company is focused to lead the global market of supermarket within the next few years. In order to achieve the marketing goals, there is the need to prepare the marketing plan. The following section presents the marketing plan for Tesco. Apart from this, the aim of Tesco is to provide versatile product range to the customers along with the establishment of the successful combination of both online and offline business activities. Marketing Mix: The marketing mix of the 7 ps needs to be analyzed at the highest priority for the development of the marketing plan. The company already offers wide range of products to the customers. For achieving the marketing objectives, the company needs to focus on providing unique products to the customers before its competitor companies. The competitor like Sainsbury offers products of different categories according to the taste and necessity of the people. Tesco must therefore must incorporate with the demands and the needs of the consumers in order to make it easy for the consumers to choose their desired products. However, the price of the products is low as the strategic focus of the organization is to provide the best product with possible low price. Here, in the pricing strategy, the company requires to do almost nothing as it offers the best price among all the competitors to its consumers. The company needs to focus on the place as one of the marketing mix elements. The competitor company of the firm, Sainsbury has more than 1200 stores throughout the world which is a possible threat to Tesco. The company must focus on establishing more stores around the world in order to reach more global customers. Despite being an active company in online, there are many people who are unaware of the brand. Also, the people who are not technologically advance is unknown of the brad. Therefore, the company must build new stores in different places to reach most of the customers. On the other hand, the promotion of the company is basically online based and for the people who are the existing customers of the brand. The company therefore, should shift its focus to the corporate and social responsibilities (CSR), which will not only enhance the brand image but also will reach many customers. Apart from that, the company can think about the celebrity endorsement like Sainsbury as their p romotional strategy which will definitely be able to attract the attention of the customers towards Tesco. Considering the people of being one of the element of marketing mix, the company is found to have skilled and competent labors. However, the company arranges various motivational programs for the employees, but the it needs to conduct training programs for them in order to enhance and develop the efficiency of the staffs. The efficiency of the staffs will further be able to provide the best service to the customers. In terms of the process of the organization, the company is more focused on the online activities. As mentioned before, the offline and physical activities of the firm will increase the number of customers as this conventional way is ever effective for successful marketing. The last element of the marketing mix, physical evidence, one of the vital aspect of the organization that needs to be given additional priority. The stores of the company are not as attractive as that of the other competitor companies. The organization needs to maintain more organized and attractive d esign in the stores for capturing the attention of the people. The well organized and well-presented stores will attract the customers and therefore increase the firms profitability. The purpose of the action plan is to understand the global market economy for the company in the existing and new market. Having proper knowledge about the market economy enable the company to take appropriate decisions for the marketing activities as well as the business activities. For the current and existing market, the company needs to follow the present marketing strategies. However, for the obverses expansion, the company must keep the products compatible according to the demand and needs of the consumers. On the other hand, the company must analyses and gain a deep knowledge about the economic condition of the host country. The company must introduce the customers of the host country different discount strategies to attract the customers not only to the products as well as the brand. The action plan also needs to include the place. The location of the stores must be accessible for the consumers. On the other hand, the action plan should focus on the most effective and popular promotional strategies which will attract the customers both the existing as well as the overseas market customers. For evaluating the effectiveness of the marketing plan as well as the strategies, the company must measure some the performance of the same. The firm at first needs to identify the possible number of new customers of the firm as the result of the use of new marketing strategies. The demographic analysis also needs to be given priority by the company to understand the ratio of the approval and rejection level of the products by the customers after the implementation of marketing plan. Status of existing customers needs to be evaluated to measure along with the status of the employee number. On the other hand, the economical measurement of the demands and supply will enable the company to understand the effectiveness of marketing plan. In addition, the overall profitability measurement through the analysis of the market share must be taken into consideration by the company at the highest priority. References: Al Muala, A. and Al Qurneh, M., 2012. Assessing the relationship between marketing mix and loyalty through tourists satisfaction in Jordan curative tourism.American Academic Scholarly Research Journal,4(2), p.1. Andreti, J., Zhafira, N.H., Akmal, S.S. and Kumar, S., 2013. The analysis of product, price, place, promotion and service quality on customers buying decision of convenience store: A survey of young adult in Bekasi, West Java, Indonesia.International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics,2(6), pp.72-78. Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M. and Brennan, R., 2015.Marketing: an introduction. Pearson Education. Bashar, A., 2012. Factors affecting conversion of footfalls in retail stores.International Journal of Management and Strategy,3(4), pp.199-202. Bojei, J., Julian, C.C., Wel, C.A.B.C. and Ahmed, Z.U., 2013. The empirical link between relationship marketing tools and consumer retention in retail marketing.Journal of Consumer Behaviour,12(3), pp.171-181. Christopher, M. and Peck, H., 2012.Marketing logistics. Routledge. Hashim, N. and Hamzah, M.I., 2014. 7P's: A Literature Review of Islamic Marketing and Contemporary Marketing Mix. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130, pp.155-159. Melis, K., Campo, K., Breugelmans, E. and Lamey, L., 2015. The impact of the multi-channel retail mix on online store choice: Does online experience matter?.Journal of Retailing,91(2), pp.272-288.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Butlers Chocolate Company Essay Example

Butlers Chocolate Company Paper Butlers Chocolates was established in 1932 by Mrs Bailey Butler. In 1959 the company was purchased and has been owned by Mr. Seamus Sorensen since that time. The Butlers Irish Chocolates brand was born in 1984. It was named in memory of Ms Marion Bailey Butler. Butlers Chocolates is located is Clonshaugh, Dublin 17 since 2003. It is a private manufacturing limited company. The company is the leading luxury chocolate producer in Ireland and operates from a custom built production facility in North Dublin. The starting point was, when in 1932, Mrs. Bailey-Butler began to produce a range of handmade chocolates from her house in Dublins Fitzwilliam Square. The company produces a wide range of delicious confectionery products including chocolate assortments such as truffles, fudge, toffee, chocolate bars and seasonal novelties. In November 1998 the first Butlers Chocolate Cafe opened its doors on Wicklow St, Dublin. Since then, thousands of customers have visited the shops. In addition to a relaxing cafe ambience, Butlers Chocolate Cafes also offer a top quality retail outlet. This unique combination is now very successful. It is a unique concept that has become hugely popular with tourists and locals alike. Butlers have also introduced many other innovations including: We will write a custom essay sample on Butlers Chocolate Company specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Butlers Chocolate Company specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Butlers Chocolate Company specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer * mail order gifts * internet marketing * club membership * discount schemes. Nowadays Butlers Chocolate Cafe has a big market. In 1998 due to new website www.butlerschocolates.com went live, fourteen Butlers Chocolate Cafes have opened, including 2 franchises in New Zealand. Retail shops have already opened up all over Ireland. The company has created a very successful concept Butlers Chocolate Cafes of which there are now 8. There is a flagship cafe at Dublin Airport and another one at Dundrum Town Centre. The most recent cafe opening has been in Oliver Plunkett Street in Cork last December. Butlers have also expanded into the U.K market and their chocolates are now widely available in most major airports throughout the UK and at Waitrose stores. From 2006 to the present day Butlers have developed new products, launching their first organic chocolate range, dark chocolate selection, 200g Chocolate cube range, Butlers Chocolate Cafe ice cream as well as Take Home Ice Cream amongst others. Also in collaboration, Butlers Chocolates launched a range of chocolates with Irish Fashion designer, Orla Kiely.1 The Cafes are a unique concept and offer the consumer the ultimate chocolate treat. This treat is delivered by way of chocolate drinks, chocolate cakes and pastries and hot beverages, including the award winning Butlers Hot Chocolate. Their Hot chocolate Sauce has won a gold medal at the London Great Taste Awards. The company has won a number of awards in recent years including the Bord Bia Brand Marketing Award and the Crest Retail Excellence Award for Butlers Chocolate Cafe, Henry Street. What make Butlers chocolates so different is the combination of the finest chocolate with fresh Irish cream, butter, eggs and secret recipes. Butlers Irish Handmade Chocolates are still located in Dublin and Mrs. Bailey-Butlers original recipes and techniques have been handed down to the present generation. They have stood the test of time, winning many top awards, in Ireland and abroad. The Irish Chocolate Company supplies three distinct markets. First one is an international duty free market which was opened in Irelands main airports such as Dublin, Shannon and Cork. In addition, duty free outlets were sourced on the ferry routes between Ireland and the UK. Also the company produces a range of gifts that have been proven very successful in international market including England, US, Russia and Dubai. It has gained a significant foothold over the last four years in the domestic market as well. The company has strived to choose stores that are match with the Butlers brand, looking for prestige, exclusivity and luxury.