Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Both domestic and international measures are somewhat effective in dealing with international crime. Both crimes against the international community and Transnational crimes represent both positive outcomes in dealing with international crime, thus, exemplify issues in key areas. Through intergovernmental organizations such as the International Criminal Court and Operation Sovereign Borders (OSB), international crime Is effectively dealt with. Hence, problems such as extradition and people smuggling are hard to contain. These four issues will also be discussed in light of key effectiveness criteria, including equality, access, resources and the protection of rights. Crimes against the international community are a collection of offences that are recognised by the international community as being of universal concern. However the prosecution of crimes against the international community can be controversial. Such crimes may be committed in the context of military conflict. They may be highly politically motivated, or they may have been ordered or committed by the state itself. The establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2002 was a significant development in the law of crimes against the international community. The independent international court established by the Rome Statute, acts as a last resort for crimes fitting into the three categories of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Due to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Dualistic system, both the War crimes ActShow MoreRelatedInternational Criminal Justice Trends1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Introduction Crime has continually evolved thus becoming more complicated especially due to technological developments. The other factors that have contributed to crime complexity includes demographic changes for males below 30 years of age which is a crime-prone age limit; and macro-economic scales that include the unemployment rate, consumers spending power and economic stability of the region. These factors revolve aroundRead MoreDomestic Terrorism Is America s Greatest Threat : Mass Shootings And Hate Crimes1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDomestic Terrorism is America s Greatest Threat: Mass Shootings and Hate Crimes I. Introduction The United States has been in a national state of emergency fighting a war on terrorism since September 11, 2001. The intelligence communities have pursued and tracked down terrorist suspects who pose a direct threat to this country, yet one of the greatest threat to this country is the astronomical number of mass shootings and hate crimes that have occurred in this country post 9/11. The UnitedRead MoreDomestic Terrorism And International Terrorism1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbeen as impactful as the 9/11 attack but most recently domestic terrorists have carried out most of the attacks. The government should take the measures necessary and focus more on domestic terrorism than international terrorism for now, because domestic terrorists are already here and they can attack at anytime. International Terrorism has most of the attention when on the topic of terrorism but we should be paying more attention to Domestic Terrorism since they are here locally based and they alreadyRead MoreUnited Law Of Public International Law1414 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReport to International Law First concerning the fear that the concept of state sovereignty in public international law is frequently overlooked by politicians, the media and others. Introduction. International Law First has asked for a report concerning the impact of public international law on the concept of state sovereignty in the UK. This report will examine the limits that public international law imposes on state sovereignty and the effect that this has on the balance of power withinRead MoreNdi. In Sharp Contrast To South Africa, Burundi Officially1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespolitical leadership, including controversial President Pierre Nkrunziza, guilty of widespread violence against political opponents, BurundiÃ¢â¬â¢s withdrawal should be seen through the prism of helpless African victims of human rights violations and domestic political considerations as well. GAMBIA Gambia announced on October 25th, 2015, that it would withdraw from the ICC, accusing the court of persecution and humiliation of people of color, especially Africans. Significantly, Fatou Bensouda, the currentRead MoreLegal Corruption In Nigeria1620 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesindividuals, not groups or States, which makes it ideal for the thesis arguments. Ã¢â¬ËAny individual who is alleged to have committed crimes within the jurisdiction of the ICC may be brought before the ICC. In fact, the Office of the ProsecutorÃ¢â¬â¢s prosecutorial policy is to focus on those who, having regard to the evidence gathered, bear the greatest responsibility for the crimes, and does not take into account any official position that may be held by the alleged perpetratorsÃ¢â¬â¢. Thus, the ICC extends noRead MoreDomestic And International Terroristic Acts1473 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDomestic and international terroristic acts have been a part of our society for many years with the intensity of those c rimes increasing as the population increases. This phenomenon is bound to remain in our world as long as there are people who oppose viewpoints and idealism of other people. Based on whether the terrorist group is domestic or international organization, there are differences and similarities in how terror acts are carried out. According to Ã¢â¬Å"section 802 of the USA PATRIOT Act theRead More International Criminal Court Essay examples1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInternational Criminal Court Allegations of war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity have undoubtedly received unprecedented press coverage in recent years Ã¢â¬â more than at any time since Nuremberg. This is not because the incidences of such barbarities have increased, but simply because those crimes are brought to us more rapidly these days by the electronic media. Since the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s the international community has witnessed of a variety of criminal tribunalsRead MoreCount the Cost is a Collaborative Effort to Fight the War on Drugs1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto reduce the unintended costs of the war on drugs. The Count the Costs project aims to highlight the negative impacts of the war on drugs in seven key policy areas: Development and Security; Public health; Human Rights; Stigma and Discrimination; Crime; The Environment; and Economics. The project calls upon world leaders and UN agencies to quantify the unintended negative consequences of the current approach to drugs, and assess the potential costs and benefits of alternative approaches. (Count theRead MoreWhat Can Post Democracy Tell Us About Mncs And Extraterritorial Violations Of Human Rights?1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdescribes some of the efforts at the international and domestic levels to regulate corporations in relation to this issue. I conclude by stating that new international principles and innovative hybrid sch emes are playing a valuable role in norm creation and standard-setting, but the enforcement of these principles remains limited. Furthermore, corporations have largely succeeded to date in their lobbying efforts to remain free of any direct obligations under international law. The term Ã¢â¬ËcorporationÃ¢â¬â¢ encompasses
Monday, December 23, 2019
Ning Zhang Intro to Marketing(MKT333) Ms. Susan Carder Dec. 20th 2014 Case Study#3 Converse 1. How would you define the needs, wants, and demands of the Converse customer? Needs lead to wants, wants lead to demands, demands lead to perception. Consumers want stylish shoes, so they demand that they be affordable. A need is a state of deprivation, and some needs according to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of needs are more crucial than others, in this case Converse customers need shoes to protect their feet, this is a basic need. A want is the form human needs take as they are shaped by culture and individual personality. Converse customers want trendy shoes that are popular, and well priced. Converse offers and satisfies both of these wants.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Allow me to try to analyze why Converse from the industry giant to be acquired by Nike. Converse is the earliest brand ruling of the NBA, although after 50 years, Adidas has become the worlds first sports brand, but in the NBA games, Converse is well-deserved hegemony. From a number of photos and videos of earlie r year you can see, almost all of NBA players are wearing Converse shoes in the game. Converse has been able to guide the 1970s NBA, in my opinion there is a very important reason is that, the Basketball Sport is still far from such a powerful influence of today, so when time the industry leader Adidas also did not pay attention to this market. These factors give Converse development has created a relatively comfortable environment. Comfortable environment means lack of effective competition, the lack of competition leads to very slow progress of Converse products. Before Nike reached the NBA to a few decades, although Converse basketball shoes improvement is growing, almost no qualitative leap. In 1982, Nike launched carrying air cushion technology for AirForce1 basketball shoes, then compared Converse products and AirForce1, ConverseÃ¢â¬â¢s almost no technology content. While in the 1980s, Nike has launched a landmark product, but Converse did not immediate realize crisis, beca use in the 1980s, Converse has the leagues most powerful Larry Joe Bird and Earvin Johnson as spokespersons, and that time Michael Jordan is only fledgling from hisShow MoreRelatedEssay about Converse Case Study1803 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesConverse: Shaping the Customer Experience They dominated the basketball courts Ã¢â¬â both amateur and professional Ã¢â¬â for more than forty years. The first U.S. Olympic basketball team wore them, and Dr. J made them famous in the NBA. Punk rocker Joey Ramone made them standard issue for cult musicians; indeed, Kurt Cobain even donned a pair when he committed suicide. Today, a broad range of consumers, from the nerdiest of high school students to A-list celebrities, claim them as their own. What areRead Moreunit 10 P5 M31714 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmethods that can be used to support children/ young people and their families where abuse is suspected or confirmed. M3 Assess strategies and methods used to minimize the harm to children, young people and their families where abuse is confirmed. Case study: Paul is 10 years old. His teachers that he might be suffering from abuse at home have reported it to the Local authority. He will be starting secondary school in a monthÃ¢â¬â¢s time. The local authority is due to put him in care temporarily whilst investigationsRead MoreResearch Papers1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCase Studies for Conflict Resolution: A key element in civil rights training WisconsinÃ WICÃ Ã CONFLICTÃ RESOLUTION:Ã CASEÃ STUDIESÃ The following case studies match the scenarios in the online training. Review (watch or read) each scenario, and then answer the questions, below. Think about what you have learned and identify a conflict resolution technique that you would use in each situation. Case Study #1 Julia just finished a certification appointment for Maria, a participant who hasRead MoreParadigm As A Research Paradigm1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSince the twentieth century, there has been a debate about which research paradigm is the most optimal and enables valid and rigorous way to collect data and study social phenomena (Kervin, 2015). A paradigm is defined as the mind-set of a researcher relating to their beliefs around acceptable ways to research, including the questions, the methodology and ways of interpretation (Kervin, 2015). One paradigm, positivism, aims to conduct research in a scientific manner, valuing statistics, replicabilityRead MoreAn Investigation Of An Assault1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdenounced individual. CURRENT STATUS Charge sheet is submitted in the court and the matter is debatable. This case won the first runner up position for the India Cyber Cop Award, for its examining officer Mr Deepak Dhole, Inspector, Mumbai Police. This case was an excellent sample of social designing when Internet was simply starting to take off in India. The police reaction was quick and the case examination careful and proficient. PREVENTION MEASURES 1. Use Strong Passwords Use distinctive client ID/watchwordRead MoreRichard E. Walton s Article3049 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesworkplaceÃ¢â¬ is a groundbreaking work which advocates that managers evolve from using the control strategy to ultimately adopting the commitment strategy. The discussion below considers his description of a control organization by looking at a case study. The case study which will be put under the microscope for the discussion focuses on developments which have led to degradation in how the workforce is managed at the Slade Company. By highlighting elements of their approach used to manage employees, andRead MoreCase Study : A Malaysian Company Essay2866 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesIntroduction: This case study is about a Malaysian company, named Padi-cepat. This company has business of food, beverages and baking products. This business units offer different products which are marketed separately because they require different technology and marketing strategies. Performance is judged o n a segmentÃ¢â¬â¢s profit before tax and interest. The CEO of the company named Raja Norman Effendi has become concerned about the future profitable growth of this company because the company facedRead MoreInterco825 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHBS Case Study : Interco 9-291-033 Ã HBS Case Study : Interco 9-291-033 * Started out as shoe company Ã¢â¬â been around a long time * Ã¢â¬ ¢Business has spread to other consumer products / services through acquisitions * Ã¢â¬ ¢Fairly conservative financially, debt level is relatively low * Interco has moved away from apparel and general retail (went from 59% to 40% of total sales)Ã¢â¬ ¢ * Placed more emphasis on the footwear division. (acquired Converse in 1986)Ã¢â¬ ¢ * Placed much more emphasisRead MoreInterpretation of IntercoÃ¢â¬Å¡ÃâÃ ´s Financial Performance812 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Interpret IntercoÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performance. Why is Interco the target of a hostile takeover? What are your interpretations of the Board of Directors in case Exhibit 1? As a member of IntercoÃ¢â¬â¢s board are you persuaded by the premiums paid in case Exhibit 10 or the comparable transactions analysis in case Exhibit 11? Why? Apr. 27 Interco (C) continued: Compute the estimated value of Interco based on instructions in Exhibit 34. Use the 1988 sales data in Exhibits 8 as the foundation for theRead MoreThe Management Styles Employed By Users Of Scientific Management1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesat these differences might help identify why The Human Relation SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas may be considered more Ã¢â¬ËevolvedÃ¢â¬â¢. Looking into the first difference highlighted; de-skilled versus enriched tasks we must first discuss in each case why the attitude has been adopted. In the case of Scientific Management it is clear that the reasoning behind the, de-skilled or maximally specialized tasks is the newfound ability to divide the production process up into simple short tasks. Then itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible to train employees
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Is Animal Testing Wrong? Would you want to put your best four legged friend through torture to find out if something, such as lipstick, would okay for humans? I know, for sure, I would never want to put any animal through these horrible experiments. Most people think that animal testing is something we have to do in order to protect ourselves from new products. Which is not true, we would survive perfectly fine with the millions of products we have now. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal Testing or any similar topic only for you Order Now These beloved animals donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to put through such torture. Animal testing is costing many animals their lives and is costing many of us millions of dollars. More than 100 million animals, ranging from mice to monkeys, are suffering and dying in cruel chemical, drug, food and cosmetic tests, biology lessons, medical training exercises, and curiosity-driven medical experiments (Ã¢â¬Å"Animals Used for ExperimentationÃ¢â¬ , n. d. ). All these animals can do is sit and wait for the pain, caused by the horrible procedures, to come their way. While the animals who were already tested on, are wishing the pain would just go away. Majority of the helpless creatures die because they lose minds caused by stress or fear. Many of the other animals die with no purpose of their life, because many of the substances will never see approval for consumption of humans. Also many animals have to be put down because they become so nervous that they start to become aggressive and then they have no use. Ã¢â¬Å"Animals Used for ExperimentationÃ¢â¬ (n. d. ) states that in order to test cosmetics, household cleaning items, and other consumer products, hundreds of thousands of animals are poisoned, blinded, and killed every year by cruel corporations. This is only the major disagreement with the torture done to animals. One huge way the animals are tortured is that most of the experiment animals are breed and raised just to be sent to laboratories. In fact a lot of these animals are bought really young to help reduce the stress of being in the cages in the labs. Therefore most of these animals have never got to know what grass feels or smells like. Most of the dogs have never played fetch with an owner. Most pregnant cats that are in animal shelters are bought by companies that test on animals. Therefore the kittens can be tested on by baby products or kept until they are a couple years old. Ã¢â¬Å"Animal Testing FactsÃ¢â¬ (n. . ) claims that every hour 2,000 cats and 3,500 dogs are born in labs all over the nation. Most importantly, none of these neglected animals have ever and will never know what it is like to be loved by a human or know what it is like to be rewarded by a human with a treat or a belly rub. The only things these animals think, about when a human comes by or to their cage, are that they have to duck down and hope they keep walking. They feel that when a human touches them, that means the pain is coming. IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t that the complete opposite purpose that these wonderful creatures are living with us? We are supposed to be the protector of the animals who canÃ¢â¬â¢t speak or defend themselves. We are supposed to be their best friends. Some of the experiments done on the animals are unbelievable! Mice and rats are forced to inhale toxic fumes, dogs are force-fed pesticides, and rabbits have corrosive chemicals rubbed onto their skin and eyes (Ã¢â¬Å"Animals used for ExperimentationÃ¢â¬ , n. d. ). Many animals become so freaked out that they start to kill each other. They also will attack themselves, such as: pulling out their own hair or feathers, eating their own skin, or starving themselves to death. Some major companies that test on animals are: Gillette, they rub their products into rabbitsÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes and then sit back and wait to see if they scream because the product is burning their eyes; Nair, they rub their products on the fur of many dogs and other furry animals; and Tide and Windex, also force feed and cover animals in their products. Those are just a few of the thousands of companies that test on animals. Many of the results found are unreliable because the animal could have easily died from one of the reasons I have already talked about. The results could also be unreliable because human bodies and animal bodies can have a different reaction or one may not even have a reaction at all to a certain product. One major disturbing thing about the reactions of animals I that most rabbits and other animals will get huge holes in their sides because a product will eat away at their skin and organs. Many other sad reactions that happen to the animals are that they could get seizures, and some forget what they are suppose to do such as drink water or eat their food. Even if animals have a bad reaction to certain products, some of these products will still go to market and be sold to the people. More than 100,000 people have been hospitalized and later died from toxic reactions to medications in 1994 that were not predicted by animal tests (Ã¢â¬Å"Animal Testing Facts, n. d. ). Most of families get tired of paying for expenses for their family pet or pets. Could you imagine having to pay for the food, housing, or care for the millions of animals? Or just paying for price of millions of animals? This is a lot of money that is wasted; animals are far from being cheap. Price is another major setback of animal testing. The price for the experiment animals, alone, has caused a lot of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ financial debt. According to Ã¢â¬Å"Animals Used in ExperimentationsÃ¢â¬ (n. d. ) the Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Toxicology Program, and the Department of Agriculture are a couple of government agencies that subject animals to many painful and cruel experiments. Another interesting fact is that a big percent of the money that is wasted on animal testing comes from United State taxpayers. It is estimated that around $12 billion, of taxpayersÃ¢â¬â¢ money, is put toward animal testing. One way to help with the cost is to test animals are small animals only, not animals that cost or ones that require more care. There are many ways to help get rid of animal testing. The most effective thing to do is to stop buying the products that are from companies, who test on animals. This way they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be making any money on their products and therefore they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have the money to spend on more animals or the care for the hundreds of animals they already have. The main argue of why we need to have animal testing is that it helps researchers improve health issues and find new medicines. This is a good point but what is pointless about it is that a lot of the medicines are almost the same medicines that we have right now. Which would prove that we could live perfectly fine without different and/or new medicines. Another point that people, who are for animal testing, have is that they say it protects people from testing on other people, because these tests could hurt or kill the person who is being tested on. This point is somewhat true but it does not help stop the people who are abused every day or the ones who are murdered. The last main argue for why we need animal testing is that it ensures the safety of the new products. The statement is barely even true, because most of the products that pass the animals could have a completely different reaction to a human. Like I said before, that animals are in an unfamiliar environment and they are so stressed that their bodies might not even have a reaction to a deadly substance. I hope that next time you put on some make up or take some pills to help get rid of a little headache, you will think about the hundreds loving animals that had to suffer for months or the animals that were killed, in order for you to have these small luxuries. The next time you pay taxes I hope you ask yourself if you money goes to help researchers torture millions of animals. When you think about all of the money we waste and all of the lives we steal away from animals, you will agree with me that we need to find a better way to test new products. Or we could hope that the scientists will be able to find a more humane way to test them on animals. References Animals used for experimentation. (n. d. ). Retrieved April 9, 2012, from http://www. peta. org/? issues/? animals-used-for-experimentation/? default2. aspx Animal testing facts. (n. d. ). Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www. animaltestingfacts. zoomshare. com/ Dixon, T. (2009, April 7). Animal experimentation. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://www. idebate. org/? debatabase/? topic_details. hp? topicID=7 Gerty. (2010, December 11). The proÃ¢â¬â¢s and cons. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://levmm1. wordpress. com/? 2010/? 12/? 11/? the-pros-and-cons/ Murnaghan, I. (2011, July 1). Using animals for testing: pros versus cons. Retrieved March 27, 2012, from http://www. aboutanimaltesting. co. uk/? using-animals-testing-pros-versus-cons. html Shandilya, R. (2011, December 16). Animal testing pros. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www. buzzle. com/? articles /? animal-testing-pros. html How to cite Animal Testing, Essay examples Animal Testing Free Essays Is Animal Testing Wrong? Would you want to put your best four legged friend through torture to find out if something, such as lipstick, would okay for humans? I know, for sure, I would never want to put any animal through these horrible experiments. Most people think that animal testing is something we have to do in order to protect ourselves from new products. Which is not true, we would survive perfectly fine with the millions of products we have now. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal Testing or any similar topic only for you Order Now These beloved animals donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to put through such torture. Animal testing is costing many animals their lives and is costing many of us millions of dollars. More than 100 million animals, ranging from mice to monkeys, are suffering and dying in cruel chemical, drug, food and cosmetic tests, biology lessons, medical training exercises, and curiosity-driven medical experiments (Ã¢â¬Å"Animals Used for ExperimentationÃ¢â¬ , n. d. ). All these animals can do is sit and wait for the pain, caused by the horrible procedures, to come their way. While the animals who were already tested on, are wishing the pain would just go away. Majority of the helpless creatures die because they lose minds caused by stress or fear. Many of the other animals die with no purpose of their life, because many of the substances will never see approval for consumption of humans. Also many animals have to be put down because they become so nervous that they start to become aggressive and then they have no use. Ã¢â¬Å"Animals Used for ExperimentationÃ¢â¬ (n. d. ) states that in order to test cosmetics, household cleaning items, and other consumer products, hundreds of thousands of animals are poisoned, blinded, and killed every year by cruel corporations. This is only the major disagreement with the torture done to animals. One huge way the animals are tortured is that most of the experiment animals are breed and raised just to be sent to laboratories. In fact a lot of these animals are bought really young to help reduce the stress of being in the cages in the labs. Therefore most of these animals have never got to know what grass feels or smells like. Most of the dogs have never played fetch with an owner. Most pregnant cats that are in animal shelters are bought by companies that test on animals. Therefore the kittens can be tested on by baby products or kept until they are a couple years old. Ã¢â¬Å"Animal Testing FactsÃ¢â¬ (n. . ) claims that every hour 2,000 cats and 3,500 dogs are born in labs all over the nation. Most importantly, none of these neglected animals have ever and will never know what it is like to be loved by a human or know what it is like to be rewarded by a human with a treat or a belly rub. The only things these animals think, about when a human comes by or to their cage, are that they have to duck down and hope they keep walking. They feel that when a human touches them, that means the pain is coming. IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t that the complete opposite purpose that these wonderful creatures are living with us? We are supposed to be the protector of the animals who canÃ¢â¬â¢t speak or defend themselves. We are supposed to be their best friends. Some of the experiments done on the animals are unbelievable! Mice and rats are forced to inhale toxic fumes, dogs are force-fed pesticides, and rabbits have corrosive chemicals rubbed onto their skin and eyes (Ã¢â¬Å"Animals used for ExperimentationÃ¢â¬ , n. d. ). Many animals become so freaked out that they start to kill each other. They also will attack themselves, such as: pulling out their own hair or feathers, eating their own skin, or starving themselves to death. Some major companies that test on animals are: Gillette, they rub their products into rabbitsÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes and then sit back and wait to see if they scream because the product is burning their eyes; Nair, they rub their products on the fur of many dogs and other furry animals; and Tide and Windex, also force feed and cover animals in their products. Those are just a few of the thousands of companies that test on animals. Many of the results found are unreliable because the animal could have easily died from one of the reasons I have already talked about. The results could also be unreliable because human bodies and animal bodies can have a different reaction or one may not even have a reaction at all to a certain product. One major disturbing thing about the reactions of animals I that most rabbits and other animals will get huge holes in their sides because a product will eat away at their skin and organs. Many other sad reactions that happen to the animals are that they could get seizures, and some forget what they are suppose to do such as drink water or eat their food. Even if animals have a bad reaction to certain products, some of these products will still go to market and be sold to the people. More than 100,000 people have been hospitalized and later died from toxic reactions to medications in 1994 that were not predicted by animal tests (Ã¢â¬Å"Animal Testing Facts, n. d. ). Most of families get tired of paying for expenses for their family pet or pets. Could you imagine having to pay for the food, housing, or care for the millions of animals? Or just paying for price of millions of animals? This is a lot of money that is wasted; animals are far from being cheap. Price is another major setback of animal testing. The price for the experiment animals, alone, has caused a lot of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ financial debt. According to Ã¢â¬Å"Animals Used in ExperimentationsÃ¢â¬ (n. d. ) the Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Toxicology Program, and the Department of Agriculture are a couple of government agencies that subject animals to many painful and cruel experiments. Another interesting fact is that a big percent of the money that is wasted on animal testing comes from United State taxpayers. It is estimated that around $12 billion, of taxpayersÃ¢â¬â¢ money, is put toward animal testing. One way to help with the cost is to test animals are small animals only, not animals that cost or ones that require more care. There are many ways to help get rid of animal testing. The most effective thing to do is to stop buying the products that are from companies, who test on animals. This way they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be making any money on their products and therefore they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have the money to spend on more animals or the care for the hundreds of animals they already have. The main argue of why we need to have animal testing is that it helps researchers improve health issues and find new medicines. This is a good point but what is pointless about it is that a lot of the medicines are almost the same medicines that we have right now. Which would prove that we could live perfectly fine without different and/or new medicines. Another point that people, who are for animal testing, have is that they say it protects people from testing on other people, because these tests could hurt or kill the person who is being tested on. This point is somewhat true but it does not help stop the people who are abused every day or the ones who are murdered. The last main argue for why we need animal testing is that it ensures the safety of the new products. The statement is barely even true, because most of the products that pass the animals could have a completely different reaction to a human. Like I said before, that animals are in an unfamiliar environment and they are so stressed that their bodies might not even have a reaction to a deadly substance. I hope that next time you put on some make up or take some pills to help get rid of a little headache, you will think about the hundreds loving animals that had to suffer for months or the animals that were killed, in order for you to have these small luxuries. The next time you pay taxes I hope you ask yourself if you money goes to help researchers torture millions of animals. When you think about all of the money we waste and all of the lives we steal away from animals, you will agree with me that we need to find a better way to test new products. Or we could hope that the scientists will be able to find a more humane way to test them on animals. References Animals used for experimentation. (n. d. ). Retrieved April 9, 2012, from http://www. peta. org/? issues/? animals-used-for-experimentation/? default2. aspx Animal testing facts. (n. d. ). Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www. animaltestingfacts. zoomshare. com/ Dixon, T. (2009, April 7). Animal experimentation. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://www. idebate. org/? debatabase/? topic_details. hp? topicID=7 Gerty. (2010, December 11). The proÃ¢â¬â¢s and cons. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://levmm1. wordpress. com/? 2010/? 12/? 11/? the-pros-and-cons/ Murnaghan, I. (2011, July 1). Using animals for testing: pros versus cons. Retrieved March 27, 2012, from http://www. aboutanimaltesting. co. uk/? using-animals-testing-pros-versus-cons. html Shandilya, R. (2011, December 16). Animal testing pros. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www. buzzle. com/? articles /? animal-testing-pros. html How to cite Animal Testing, Papers Animal testing Free Essays Animal testing should be outlawed because it is hurtful and not necessary. Tests that are performed on animals range from them being forced to ingest different household cleaning products and then monitored to see the results and new cosmetics placed on their skin to find out if there are any side effects that would be harmful to a human. There are even some practices where animals are forced to ingest a medicine before it is put on the market to make sure that there are no life- threatening illnesses that will be caused to a human from taking the product. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal testing or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã In order to test corrosive chemicals like Savage Acid and Goodbye Graffiti, rabbits backs are shaved and corrosive chemicals are applied onto their raw skin and left for up to two weeks. The chemicals burn the skin and the rabbits are given no pain relief.Ã After the testing period the rabbits used are then killed. (Stop Animal Tests) Today the term Ã¢â¬Å"vivisectionÃ¢â¬ is used.Ã Vivisection is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"cutting while still aliveÃ¢â¬ but it is more commonly used today as any harmful experiment or test that is performed on an animal.Ã Animal experimentation involves the incarceration of animals and poisoning, mutilation, disease and killing of those individuals. It is arguably the most brutal and most severe form of violence in the modern world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires by law that pesticides be tested on dogs, who are shoved into Ã¢â¬Å"inhalation chambersÃ¢â¬ where they try in vain to escape the deadly poisons that are pumped in. The Food and Drug Administration requires companies marketing fluoride products to swab the teeth of 200 rats with the test substance for two weeks, at which time the animals are killed and their heads baked in an oven for an hour and your tax dollars are funding these types of experiments. Some businesses that test on animals include:Ã Clorox, Clairol, Calvin Klein Cosmetics, Cover Girl, Dial Corporation, Johnson Johnson, and Playtex Products Incorporated.Ã It is said that an estimated 50,000 animals die due to the testing on them that Proctor and Gamble performs on them every year.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Secretly-filmed video evidence of PG sponsored experiments at Huntingdon Life Sciences (a major multi-national contract animal testing company) shows the brutal treatment and killing of 48 monkeys.Ã¢â¬ (Uncaged Campaign) However, since cosmetics and household items are not required to be tested on animals and since there are non-animal alternatives, it is difficult to understand why companies continue to conduct these cruel tests on animals.Ã The two main reasons that all companies do not become cruelty free are: the fear for human safety and the fear of product liability suits. Founded in 1981 was Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (Zawistowski), a place that is dedicated to helping find new methods to replace the laboratory animals that are being tested on.Ã The CAAT vision states: Ã¢â¬Å"To be a leading force in the development and use of reduction, refinement, and replacement alternatives in research, testing, and education to protect and enhance the health of the public.Ã¢â¬ Ã (Zawistowski)Ã The main disadvantages to animal tests, according to John Frazier and Alan Goldberg, of CAAT, are: Ã¢â¬Å"Animal discomfort and death, species-extrapolation problems, and excessive time and expense.Ã¢â¬ Ã (Zawistowski) Revlon Cosmetics was one of the first large companies to fund the research for alternative testing with a contribution of $750,000 to the Rockefeller University in 1979. (www.animalsavingsclub.com) Keep in mind that, while companies search for alternatives, animal use actually INCREASES because the old test (using animals) must be done alongside the new test (without animals) to ensure consistent results. So what types of alternatives are being used today?Ã The most common alternatives that are used today are: in-vitro tests, computer software, and even human Ã¢â¬Å"clinical testsÃ¢â¬ .Ã The use of animal cells, organs, and tissue cultures are also deemed as alternatives, however animal lives are still sacrificed for the use of their parts. (Stevens) How can someone that kills a dog in the middle of a street in broad daylight have repercussions to abide by but the companies that slowly kill animals with the tests that they perform on them not have any repercussions to pay?Ã There are laws in place for the safety of animals that are on our streets or that live with us as companions, but there are no laws that say it is wrong for businesses to slice a dog open while it is still alive with no anesthesia just to take tests of its kidney.Ã The animals can not tell the scientist that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be tested on, but humans can.Ã We need to talk for the animals and help stop this cruel and inhumane treatment.Ã There are many other ways that products and medicine can be tested; the use of innocent animals is no longer needed. Works Cited Featured Cruelty-Free Company: Revlon. 2005. 17 Dec. 2005 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.animalsavingsclub.com/company_Revlon.asp Stevens, Karen Lee. Ã¢â¬Å"ALL FOR ANIMALS Ã¢â¬â Cruelty-Free Living.Ã¢â¬ All for Animals. 2000. Ã Ã Ã Ã 17 Dec. 2005 http://www.allforanimals.com/schoolproject.htm Stop Animal Tests. 17 Dec. 2005 www.stopanimaltests.com Ã¢â¬Å"UNCAGED CAMPAIGNS Ã¢â¬â WHO CARES WINS.Ã¢â¬ Uncaged Campaign. 2005. 17 Dec. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2005 www.uncaged.co.uk Zawistowski, Stephen L. Animal Use in the Lab. Ã¢â¬Å"The more things changeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ASPCA Ã Ã Animal Watch, Spring 2003, Vol. 23, No. 1. http://caat.jhsph.edu/issues/aspca-Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã animaluse.htm Ã Ã Ã How to cite Animal testing, Essay examples
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Tools and Consumer Retention in Retail Marketing. Answer: Introduction: The marketing mix is the combination of the various factors which in influential on the marketing activities of the firm (Armstrong et al. 2015). The marketing mix defines the putting of the right products in the right place with right price and through right promotion (Hashim and Hamzah 2014). However, the marketing mix also denotes the placement of the products for the right people with proper physical activities of the firm. The 7ps of marketing mix is the modification of the 4ps of marketing mix. The chosen company Tesco is one of the supermarket leading in the international market. one of the major competitors of the company is the Sainsbury. This section applies the 7ps of marketing mix on both the company in order to identify the difference and similarities with the both for marketing activities. The 7ps of marketing mix are: A wide range of products is offered by Tesco which includes clothing, electronics, foods, financial services and others. The numerous products of different categories are capable of meeting the needs of the customer. In addition, for identifying the needs of the customers, the company has expanded to the online marketing. In the retail stores, the company offers free music and grocery delivery service to the along with the 40,000 other products (Al Muala and Al Qurneh 2012). The consumers are given provided with the options to choose from the variety of the products which includes different brand, regions, production type, international cuisine in foods and so on. On the other hand, the Sainsbury also provides its customers with the choice of varied range of products such as the toiletries, foods, stationaries and others. the company in its retail stores offers 30,000 variety of products. Unlike Tesco, the company has categories its products in terms of premium quality, organic, Be Good to Yourself, Home Collection and many others. In terms of attracting the customers, Tesco attempts to maintain the low price of the products without the lowering the quality of the same. The company has achieved remarkable accomplishment and the competitive advantages in the international market leaving one of the oldest brand Sainsbury behind. In addition, Tesco uses strategies which allow the customers to collect points for future purchase which converts into money at the time of purchasing (Christopher and Peck 2012). Apart from this, Tesco uses price-promotional strategy for loyal customer which provide them discount. The pricing strategy of Sainsbury is based on the quality of the products. Unlike Tesco, the price of products is determined not in terms of the customer preferences, but in terms of the quality of the products. This means that the higher the quality is, the higher the price. The company uses the competitive price policy rather that the price cutting policy. The headquarter of Tesco is situated at the Chestnut, Hertfordshire, England, whereas the stores of the company are spread all over the world. The firm uses both online and offline distribution channels for its products and service. The stores of the firm are of six different kinds such as Tesco Extra, Tesco Metro, Tesco Express, Tesco Homeplus, Tesco Compact and Tesco Superstore. As all the customers are not comfortable in the supermarket, the company uses smaller stores and online forum Tesco Direct for those customers. Sainsbury has 714 convenience stores and 598 supermarkets across the world. The company offers home delivery service along with the online shopping facilities (Melis et al. 2015). Sainsbury initially managed the distribution channels by its own, but after 1970 the distribution channel is handled by DHL, NFT and others. The low price strategy of Tesco is one of the advantages which influences the promotions of the company. The company uses digital advertisements, promotional discounts offerings, charitable events sponsorship, point of sales strategies and so on for the promotions of the products as well as the brand. The promotional activities of the firm are focused on the low price and all the promotional strategies are based on the same which not only increases sales of the products but also secure the brand image in the public. On the other hand, Sainsbury is concerned with the brand image and for securing the same it uses the above the line (ATL) and below the line (BTL) promotional strategies (Bashar, 2012). The company also uses the celebrity endorsement strategies along with the digital media marketing. In addition, the company uses its CSR strategies for promotional purpose. Tesco are enriched with excellent, competent and skilled sales staffs who contribute to the success of the firm (Andreti et al. 2013). The company uses various motivational programs for the workers. On the other hand, Sainsbury is also privileged with efficient staffs. Unlike Tesco, Sainsbury uses training program for enhancing the skills of the labors. Stores of Tesco are not like Sainsbury with excellently furnished features. Tesco stores are minimal and clean whereas Sainsbury stores are attractive variedly organized. This is evident from the detail of 7ps of the marketing mix that both the company uses different marketing strategies for the marketing of its products. Tesco has remarkably achieved the leading position in the international market of retail stores, whereas Sainsbury is lacking behind despite being one of the old company in the market (Bojei et al. 2013). Both the company offer wide and varied range of products to the consumers along with the several advantages facilities. The difference is seen in the promotion and the price of the products. Tesco uses the low price strategy for its promotion while Sainsbury focuses on the quality of the products. On the other hand, the similarities are found within the two companies in terms of the process as both the organizations are emphasizing on the online marketing as well as shopping facilities. However, the overall analysis of the marketing mix of Tesco and Sainsbury makes it clear that the marketing strategies of Tesco is more effective in terms of profitability of the firm. Tesco is one of the biggest and leading supermarket in UK ad successfully running its business across the world. The marketing goals of the company is to achieve the provide the best products to the customers with the possible lowest price. In addition, the marketing objectives of the company is focused to lead the global market of supermarket within the next few years. In order to achieve the marketing goals, there is the need to prepare the marketing plan. The following section presents the marketing plan for Tesco. Apart from this, the aim of Tesco is to provide versatile product range to the customers along with the establishment of the successful combination of both online and offline business activities. Marketing Mix: The marketing mix of the 7 ps needs to be analyzed at the highest priority for the development of the marketing plan. The company already offers wide range of products to the customers. For achieving the marketing objectives, the company needs to focus on providing unique products to the customers before its competitor companies. The competitor like Sainsbury offers products of different categories according to the taste and necessity of the people. Tesco must therefore must incorporate with the demands and the needs of the consumers in order to make it easy for the consumers to choose their desired products. However, the price of the products is low as the strategic focus of the organization is to provide the best product with possible low price. Here, in the pricing strategy, the company requires to do almost nothing as it offers the best price among all the competitors to its consumers. The company needs to focus on the place as one of the marketing mix elements. The competitor company of the firm, Sainsbury has more than 1200 stores throughout the world which is a possible threat to Tesco. The company must focus on establishing more stores around the world in order to reach more global customers. Despite being an active company in online, there are many people who are unaware of the brand. Also, the people who are not technologically advance is unknown of the brad. Therefore, the company must build new stores in different places to reach most of the customers. On the other hand, the promotion of the company is basically online based and for the people who are the existing customers of the brand. The company therefore, should shift its focus to the corporate and social responsibilities (CSR), which will not only enhance the brand image but also will reach many customers. Apart from that, the company can think about the celebrity endorsement like Sainsbury as their p romotional strategy which will definitely be able to attract the attention of the customers towards Tesco. Considering the people of being one of the element of marketing mix, the company is found to have skilled and competent labors. However, the company arranges various motivational programs for the employees, but the it needs to conduct training programs for them in order to enhance and develop the efficiency of the staffs. The efficiency of the staffs will further be able to provide the best service to the customers. In terms of the process of the organization, the company is more focused on the online activities. As mentioned before, the offline and physical activities of the firm will increase the number of customers as this conventional way is ever effective for successful marketing. The last element of the marketing mix, physical evidence, one of the vital aspect of the organization that needs to be given additional priority. The stores of the company are not as attractive as that of the other competitor companies. The organization needs to maintain more organized and attractive d esign in the stores for capturing the attention of the people. The well organized and well-presented stores will attract the customers and therefore increase the firms profitability. The purpose of the action plan is to understand the global market economy for the company in the existing and new market. Having proper knowledge about the market economy enable the company to take appropriate decisions for the marketing activities as well as the business activities. For the current and existing market, the company needs to follow the present marketing strategies. However, for the obverses expansion, the company must keep the products compatible according to the demand and needs of the consumers. On the other hand, the company must analyses and gain a deep knowledge about the economic condition of the host country. The company must introduce the customers of the host country different discount strategies to attract the customers not only to the products as well as the brand. The action plan also needs to include the place. The location of the stores must be accessible for the consumers. On the other hand, the action plan should focus on the most effective and popular promotional strategies which will attract the customers both the existing as well as the overseas market customers. For evaluating the effectiveness of the marketing plan as well as the strategies, the company must measure some the performance of the same. The firm at first needs to identify the possible number of new customers of the firm as the result of the use of new marketing strategies. The demographic analysis also needs to be given priority by the company to understand the ratio of the approval and rejection level of the products by the customers after the implementation of marketing plan. Status of existing customers needs to be evaluated to measure along with the status of the employee number. On the other hand, the economical measurement of the demands and supply will enable the company to understand the effectiveness of marketing plan. In addition, the overall profitability measurement through the analysis of the market share must be taken into consideration by the company at the highest priority. References: Al Muala, A. and Al Qurneh, M., 2012. Assessing the relationship between marketing mix and loyalty through tourists satisfaction in Jordan curative tourism.American Academic Scholarly Research Journal,4(2), p.1. Andreti, J., Zhafira, N.H., Akmal, S.S. and Kumar, S., 2013. The analysis of product, price, place, promotion and service quality on customers buying decision of convenience store: A survey of young adult in Bekasi, West Java, Indonesia.International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics,2(6), pp.72-78. Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M. and Brennan, R., 2015.Marketing: an introduction. Pearson Education. Bashar, A., 2012. Factors affecting conversion of footfalls in retail stores.International Journal of Management and Strategy,3(4), pp.199-202. Bojei, J., Julian, C.C., Wel, C.A.B.C. and Ahmed, Z.U., 2013. The empirical link between relationship marketing tools and consumer retention in retail marketing.Journal of Consumer Behaviour,12(3), pp.171-181. Christopher, M. and Peck, H., 2012.Marketing logistics. Routledge. Hashim, N. and Hamzah, M.I., 2014. 7P's: A Literature Review of Islamic Marketing and Contemporary Marketing Mix. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130, pp.155-159. Melis, K., Campo, K., Breugelmans, E. and Lamey, L., 2015. The impact of the multi-channel retail mix on online store choice: Does online experience matter?.Journal of Retailing,91(2), pp.272-288.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Butlers Chocolate Company Paper Butlers Chocolates was established in 1932 by Mrs Bailey Butler. In 1959 the company was purchased and has been owned by Mr. Seamus Sorensen since that time. The Butlers Irish Chocolates brand was born in 1984. It was named in memory of Ms Marion Bailey Butler. Butlers Chocolates is located is Clonshaugh, Dublin 17 since 2003. It is a private manufacturing limited company. The company is the leading luxury chocolate producer in Ireland and operates from a custom built production facility in North Dublin. The starting point was, when in 1932, Mrs. Bailey-Butler began to produce a range of handmade chocolates from her house in Dublins Fitzwilliam Square. The company produces a wide range of delicious confectionery products including chocolate assortments such as truffles, fudge, toffee, chocolate bars and seasonal novelties. In November 1998 the first Butlers Chocolate Cafe opened its doors on Wicklow St, Dublin. Since then, thousands of customers have visited the shops. In addition to a relaxing cafe ambience, Butlers Chocolate Cafes also offer a top quality retail outlet. This unique combination is now very successful. It is a unique concept that has become hugely popular with tourists and locals alike. Butlers have also introduced many other innovations including: We will write a custom essay sample on Butlers Chocolate Company specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Butlers Chocolate Company specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Butlers Chocolate Company specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer * mail order gifts * internet marketing * club membership * discount schemes. Nowadays Butlers Chocolate Cafe has a big market. In 1998 due to new website www.butlerschocolates.com went live, fourteen Butlers Chocolate Cafes have opened, including 2 franchises in New Zealand. Retail shops have already opened up all over Ireland. The company has created a very successful concept Butlers Chocolate Cafes of which there are now 8. There is a flagship cafe at Dublin Airport and another one at Dundrum Town Centre. The most recent cafe opening has been in Oliver Plunkett Street in Cork last December. Butlers have also expanded into the U.K market and their chocolates are now widely available in most major airports throughout the UK and at Waitrose stores. From 2006 to the present day Butlers have developed new products, launching their first organic chocolate range, dark chocolate selection, 200g Chocolate cube range, Butlers Chocolate Cafe ice cream as well as Take Home Ice Cream amongst others. Also in collaboration, Butlers Chocolates launched a range of chocolates with Irish Fashion designer, Orla Kiely.1 The Cafes are a unique concept and offer the consumer the ultimate chocolate treat. This treat is delivered by way of chocolate drinks, chocolate cakes and pastries and hot beverages, including the award winning Butlers Hot Chocolate. Their Hot chocolate Sauce has won a gold medal at the London Great Taste Awards. The company has won a number of awards in recent years including the Bord Bia Brand Marketing Award and the Crest Retail Excellence Award for Butlers Chocolate Cafe, Henry Street. What make Butlers chocolates so different is the combination of the finest chocolate with fresh Irish cream, butter, eggs and secret recipes. Butlers Irish Handmade Chocolates are still located in Dublin and Mrs. Bailey-Butlers original recipes and techniques have been handed down to the present generation. They have stood the test of time, winning many top awards, in Ireland and abroad. The Irish Chocolate Company supplies three distinct markets. First one is an international duty free market which was opened in Irelands main airports such as Dublin, Shannon and Cork. In addition, duty free outlets were sourced on the ferry routes between Ireland and the UK. Also the company produces a range of gifts that have been proven very successful in international market including England, US, Russia and Dubai. It has gained a significant foothold over the last four years in the domestic market as well. The company has strived to choose stores that are match with the Butlers brand, looking for prestige, exclusivity and luxury.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Five Pillars of Islam Essays Five Pillars of Islam Essay Five Pillars of Islam Essay Checkpoint: The Five Pillars of Islam What are the central beliefs of Islam, and how are they reflected in the Five PillarsÃ¢â¬ (McInerney, 2003)? Which of the Five Pillars do you feel would be easiest to fulfill, and which would be the most challenging (McInerney, 2003)? A central belief of Islam is monotheism. This is a belief of only one God, Allah. The believerÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to serve Allah and live a moral life by following the Five Pillars. Muslims are obligated to follow these Five Pillars in the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an, the holy book to all Muslims. The Five Pillars are faith, prayer, Zakat, the fast, and hajj. All of these Pillars show devotion to Allah. The first of the pillar of Islam is faith or Shahadah. The believer must profess God is the only god and Muhammad is His messenger. Muhammad is not a god but a messenger of God for guidance. The QurÃ¢â¬â¢an requires believers tell others of Islam in order for them to make an intelligent choice. The second pillar is prayer. The believer recites a series of prayers and passages from the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an while kneeling and bowing five times a day while facing Mecca. : When the prayers are recited by a congregation, all stands and bow shoulder to shoulder, without any class distinction. During the prayer, the kneeling and bowing shows submission to Allah. Repeating the prayers is believed to strengthen oneÃ¢â¬â¢s belief in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence and carry this belief deep into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s heart and all aspect of external life. Prayer is also used to purify ones heart, develop the mind and conscience, stop evil in a person, and awakening higher aspiration and morality (Fisher, 2005). Zakat, spiritual tithing is the third pillar. At the end of the year the believer donates two and half percent of all their income to the less fortunate. This is done for purification and growth. The belief is to help decrease the inequalities in wealth and prevention of personal greed. Charity is a necessity for Muslims. The fourth pillar is fasting. Although frequent fast are recommended the only fast required is during Ramadan. This is to honor the first revelation of the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an to Muhammad. The believer must abstain from sexual relations, drink, food, and smoking from dusk to dawn during the entire month of Ramadan. MuslimÃ¢â¬â¢s lunar calendar is 354 days so Ramadan moves through all seasons. Muslims believe fasting purges the body of impurities and provides clarity and a light body to move and act. It teaches one not to allow anything to enter the mind and heart to distract one away from God. Fasting help controls one bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s desire while mastering the lower emotions of jealousy and anger. The pilgrimage to Mecca, hajj, is the fifth pillar. All Muslims who can financially afford this trip is expected make the trip at least once in their lifetime. The series of symbolic rituals are designed for the believer to experiences a closeness with God like never before. The males dress in special garments not sewn, all looking alike. No distinction is detected. Circling of KaÃ¢â¬â¢ba seven times symbolizes the continual rotation around the One by the angels of all of creation, to the seventh heaven. The pilgrimÃ¢â¬â¢s heart should be filled with the remembrance of Allah. The pilgrim visits the sacred field of Arafat. This site is believed to be where Adam and Eve were taught that humans were created exclusively for worshipping God (Fisher, 2005. ) Here prayer is from noon to sunset for the forgiveness of anything that has separated them from God. The central belief of Islam is, monotheism, prayer, tithing, charity, fasting, and visiting Mecca, echoed in the Five Pillars of Islam. Although I am not of the Islam faith, the easiest pillar to follow is Zakat. Charity and tithing is a part of my life. I believe in it with all of my heart. It helps me to stay grounded, not put a high level of importance on materialistic objects, and level headed. I also believe God would approve. God does not want His children to be greedy. God want us to help others. I do believe in one God. However, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe Muhammad should have all the emphasis shown, a self proclaim messenger. I believe in only one God. Therefore I believe the first pillar would be the hardest. Fisher, M. P. (2005). Living Religions (6th ed. ). Pearson Education: Prentice Hall
Friday, November 22, 2019
HR Roles and Responsibilities Paper - Essay Example HRM has since been ascribed an essential role in achieving the goals of organizations. Its rise had important implications on the recognition of workers. The competencies of employees have been given more notice in recruitment and selection as well as in training and development (Van Marrewijk & Timmers, 2003). Its strategic position as a sounding board for top management and facilitator and change agent in the restructuring and transformation processes of the company is equally balanced with its role as an important partner for employees. Ã¢â¬Å"Thus, the HRM function positions itself in two ways: as the architect of new organizational structures and work systems, and as coach in management development processes and companion of employees in turnaround processesÃ¢â¬ (Van Marrewijk & Timmers:174) Movement from traditional personnel management towards HRM is caused by factors such as Ã¢â¬Å"increased level of competition, less availability of trained workforce, less committed workforce, rapidly changing technology, increased level of downsizing and restructuring of organizationsÃ¢â¬ (Budhwar:143). Further, the increased importance and interest in HRM may be enhanced by the introduction of the National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs), Investors in People (IIP) standards, increased pressure on training and enterprise councils (TEC) and the Ã¢â¬Å"welfare to workÃ¢â¬ projects. The ever-increasing functions of HRM have given birth to two practices Ã¢â¬â integration and devolvement. Brewster and Larsen (1992) define integration as Ã¢â¬Å"the degree to which HRM issues are considered as part of the formulation of the business strategyÃ¢â¬ and devolvement as Ã¢â¬Å"the degree to which HRM practices involve and give responsibility to line managers rather than personnel specialists.Ã¢â¬ (411-412). This paper will focus on the practice of devolvement. Unloading
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Is the MPAA Rating System Fair - Essay Example rating system should not be ruled out, it would be appropriate to follow a fair open system rather than conforming to the outdated societal norms and beliefs. Unless and otherwise a renovation is made to the system, the whole thing seems to be of no worth to the film industry and its audience. Tracking back to the history of MPAA; in 1930, they crested the Ã¢â¬ËHays CodeÃ¢â¬â¢ holding just two categories, Ã¢â¬ËacceptableÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËunacceptableÃ¢â¬â¢, which were later overhauled by the current 5-rating system in 1968, comprising of G, PG, PG-13, R, and NC-17 ratings. Ã¢â¬Å"For almost 40 years the US film industry was governed by the Motion Picture Production Code, which banned nudity, drug use, religious ridicule, disrespect for the law and other depictions in film that would have the effect of lowering societyÃ¢â¬â¢s moral standards.Ã¢â¬ (Fieser, 2011). The systemÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate goal was to defend the artistic freedom of the filmmakers, at the same time, fulfilling the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s need to determine the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s appropriateness for their children. Recently, there have been claims that the MPAA is not fair and is too conservative in its ratings. It is also criticized of being arbitrary in its rating decisions, consequently affecting numerous filmmakers with its random sexually-obsessed and biased judgments. This issue is well-portrayed in This Film Is Not Yet Rated, as it exposes the reasons and rules of ratings behind the mysterious organization, its membership and its bias in rating the films. To top of that, the film also uncovers the entityÃ¢â¬â¢s secrecy, its specific functioning and its rules. According to the film, the board does not have any specific members or guidelines but adheres to the so-called norms of an outdated system, which has turned out to be a mess. The entire concept of MPAA seems to be absurd in many cases. Normally, the NC-17 rating is regarded to have explicit sexual content, regardless of the scale of violence portrayed. What makes the issue harsher is that
Monday, November 18, 2019
War on Drugs in Colombia - Essay Example Colombia became the source country and the main supplier of cocaine to the world markets in the nineties. Almost 80% of the cocaine used in America came from Colombia. This illegal narcotic trade yielded billion of dollars as revenue, most of which was used to fund armed groups which were involved in drug production as well as trafficking. For the past fifty years or so, Colombia has been a very unstable country. In the 1960s it was the two Marxist guerilla outfits the National Liberation Army (ELN) and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) that were creating instability. In the 1970s it was drug trafficking that became a big problem for Colombia. Drug cartels almost controlled the country then. In the 1990s the right-wing paramilitaries were formed mainly consisting of drug traffickers and landowners. The main paramilitary group was the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC). The conflict in Colombia began even before large-scale production of cocaine began. The conflict was clearly a result of the unequal distribution of wealth and resources and the fact that people could get away with the abuse of human rights. The guerrilla forces vilated human rights and the wealthy in turn formed paramilitary forces to protect their power. The paramilitary forces dominated the drug trade, and the guerrillas have used money from the drug trade to finance their activities. Ã¢â¬Å"The War on DrugsÃ¢â¬ is the name given to the action taken by the United States and the participating countries to stop the supply of drugs to the United States and also to lessen the demand for drugs among the people.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Trends And Issues In Curriculum And Instructions Education Essay The Jamaican Early Childhood Curriculum was recently crafted. The curriculum is built on the principle that children learn best when content from various disciplines along with skills from the developmental domains are in line with the childrens holistic view and experience of the world. The curriculum therefore considers learning through play, sequenced learning, individual learning, the practitioners multiple roles, and inclusion of all learners and the domains of development, the learning environment, proper assessment, the role of parents and the role of community (Davies, 2008). While the curriculum addresses various objectives that need to be met in fostering Early Childhood learning and outlines the requisite instructions, there are challenges to the implementation of the curriculum. Broadly speaking, these factors are usually internal and external. These factors reduce the effectiveness of the curriculum and weaken the chance of effective learning at the Early Childhood Level. The factors drive a mismatch between the situation that the curriculum was designed to target and the reality. This difference causes the actual learning outcome to deviate from the intended learning outcome. The curriculum is based on an assumption that the student is operating at a particular level, the students parent and environmental background offer a certain level of support, and the teacher operates at a certain level. It is fair to believe that this is normally the case. However, curriculum implementation breaks down whenever these assumptions do not hold. In my view, the internal factors may be best represented by teachers, students, school infrastructure and resources. Teachers are given the primary responsibility to implement the curriculum. A teachers creativity, capabilities and qualification enables him/her to transfer the content of the curriculum in a meaningful way that will connect with the diverse groups of learners. According to Jalongo and Isenberg (2012) a teachers knowledge of the children and the content of the curriculum will enable him/her to possess the ability to provide for the childrens strengths and weakness. The capable teacher will be able to facilitate the childs interest and to develop the knowledge, skills, values, and dispositions they will need to become productive members of the society. Jalongo and Isenberg (2012) posit that the teacher strategies and plan for learning is the thread that weaves the curriculum. They refer to this as the what of teaching, and the how of teaching. Its therefore, imperative that teachers plan for the students learning in order to cater for the diverse learning styles in their classroom. The methodologies that the teacher employs should fit the students ability to gain knowledge and develop the necessary skills. Also, the teacher should be competent and acquire keen insights on the capabilities that children possess in order to cater for holistic development. If this is not achieved, then the implementation of the curriculum would have failed. A key ingredient for the successful implementation of any curriculum is a keen understanding of the learner. Jalongo and Isenberg (2012) posit that a curriculum should focus on what a child knows and can do and what a child should know and can do. Hence the content of the curriculum should take into account the needs, interest, age and stage of development and the social and cultural context of the child. The child as the learner possesses the ultimate success of the curriculum. This takes into account the abilities, skills, background knowledge and exposure /experience that the child acquires before entering the learning environment. According to Puckett and Diffily (2004) being aware of the differences in childrens development, strengths and challenges will allow curriculum planners and teachers to plan effectively in order to meet each childs developmental needs. Jalongo and Isenberg (2012) stated that a curriculum should consider the following; Child development and learning, Chi ld needs, abilities and interest as well as their socio cultural context in which they live. I strongly believe that these factors will enable the teachers to perform effectively within the teaching and learning environment. The school infrastructure and resources play a vital role in the delivery of the schools curriculum. It is my observation that the size of the student population relative to the size and quality of the physical accommodation of a school impacts the quality of curriculum implementation. According to Krogh and Morehouse (2008) the environment outside the classroom should be rich with potential and becomes a valuable multiuse arena. They also indicate that the physical environment plays an integral and vital part in supporting practices that encourage high levels of child initiated engagement and exploration. It is my view that the environment plays a key role in stimulating the cognitive processes required for effective curriculum implementation. I believe that the infrastructure of a school attracts a particular socio economic class from within the community. As a result, this will determine the quality of students and teachers who are enrolled in and employed to the school. It also establishes the quality of curriculum implementation that will occur. This will drive the resources that these schools are provided with. Greater resources mean that the school is able to properly finance the required staffing and infrastructure improvements that facilitate the learning process. My school is located in the rural area of St. Andrew and its serves children from low socio economic backgrounds. Therefore, the implementation of the curriculum faces barriers as the students are unable to relate to the information, the teachers have limited educational training and the resources are limited to meet the needs of the students. This poses a challenge for the curriculum to be fully implemented and for the required learning outcomes to be obtained. In my view, external factors usually include parents, home and community. I believe that these factors are crucial to the implementation of the curriculum. Parental involvement is a key determinant to successful academic achievement. This sets the foundation of the learning attitude that children carry to the learning environment. Support from parents increases the academic achievement in later years. Burke (2010) postulates that a child whose parents are passionately active and involved in their education at an early has a distinct advantage when compared to his/her peers. I believe that the involvement of parents facilitates the childs willingness to appreciate the importance of a solid education. This involvement can break or build the implementation of any curriculum. In my opinion, parents are generally unaware of the powerful effect that they have on what and how the content of a curriculum is designed and implemented. I believe that parents are an essential part of resource bu ilding. Strong parent teacher associations (PTAs) and effective parental involvement in school administration goes a far way in strengthening fund raising activities and in acquiring external support in building the school infrastructure. I strongly believe that parents are the first line of support for all children. They are the primary source of socialization and set the foundation for formal learning to take place. The home is the initial environment for optimal nurturing and it ideally creates a sense of belonging. In integrating parental role in curriculum implementation, a one-size fits all approach cannot be taken. We have to take into consideration the socio economic status of these parents as well as their educational background. The background of these parents, especially in rural environs, allows for limitation on the input they can offer to the implementation of the curriculum. Hence, little or no involvement occurs and the inability to hold teachers accountable for poor curriculum implementation becomes a major issue. Burke (2010) states that when parents are involved in the educational process of their children, they will be able to include or add additional information and insight from their own persona l experiences to teachers in order to support their childs learning and development. Community is seen as the secondary source of socialization. When we examine a community, we need to take into account the structure, culture and socio economic factors that shape the community. Couchenour and Chrisman (2011) stated that when the cultural background of the community does not match the cultural and educational context of a school then the academic achievement will be affected. This, I believe, is crucial in the implementation of the curriculum. In my opinion, the cultural background of the students and the parents may prevent a school from attaining a targeted culture. The interrelatedness of the school and the community greatly impacts the achievement of the objectives of the curriculum. Rural communities are largely comprised of farmers and unemployed individuals who sparingly acquire secondary education. Urie Brofenbrenners bioecological theory explains that understanding a childs development requires us to view the child in his socio culture context that includes f amily setting, community and the wider society (as cited in Couchenour and Chrisman, 2011). It is my view that the community plays a vital role in shaping the culture of the school. Depending on the socio economic, culture, structure and educational factors the implementation of the curriculum will be extensively affected. In conclusion, many factors affectÃ curriculumÃ implementation. It is my view that internal factors such as teachers, students, school infrastructure and resources and external factors such as parents, home and community are vital factors that may pose positive and negative effects on the implementation of the curriculum. At the early childhood level, the content and objectives of the curriculum should be centred on the childs needs and interest. How we address their needs and interest is dependent on the instructional objectives carried out by the teacher, the availability of resources and the learning environment of the school. It is my view, therefore, that a curriculum customization is needed at the Early Childhood level in order to cater for the different internal and external factors indicated above. A customized blueprint will produce effective, critical and holistic thinkers within our community and wider society.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
MBA Admissions Essays - An Entrepreneurial Passion Ã My love for business is not something I was born with. It took over a decade of experience and exploration to discover my passion. This discovery began ten years ago when I accepted a position at The Pitney Bowes Corporation. My job was to make unsolicited phone calls to prospective businesses in order to sell our base model postage meter. All that was required was reading a script, word for word, to potential buyers. Yet, after a week of working at Pitney Bowes, I still didn't know important details about the meter, like what it looked like, and how it actually operated. My manager acted a bit surprised when I asked to see the meter, but she agreed, and I took a walk to an adjacent building where I saw first hand what I was selling. It looked completely different from what I had expected, but by viewing and touching it first hand, my ability to convey to people what I was offering improved dramatically. Once I viewed the device, I felt more confident to adlib on the sales pitch. In a couple of weeks reading my hybrid pitch led to a higher rate of sales. People were more apt to buy from someone who sounded like a person and less like a robot. My sales steadily improved and in my third month I was the number one sales person out of over 200 employees. Management implemented some of my changes in the selling process and as a result, overall sales of the entry model postage meter increased significantly. Ã After my days of selling postage meters were long over, and I was in my senior year of college, I decided to start my own company. I wrote two books on college admission and college life and marketed them through the internet. After three month of diligent work, I sold over 500 books and expanded the company to five employees. Since selling only two books was proving so successful, I decided to branch out and try my hands at an affiliate driven superstore. I partnered with web sites like Amazon.com and Reel.com and became officially licensed to sell their merchandise. My time and effort resulted in many visitors to my on-line superstore, but sales were few and far between. The business needed a change of direction.
Monday, November 11, 2019
What did Hoggart and other British cultural critics see the “juke box boys” (Hoggart, 1958, 247) as a portent of?
Dan Bednar The essay will introduce the notion of consensus Ã¢â¬â the agreement reached between political parties as well as in the society as a whole. However, due to the limitation of this paper, this is a rather an abbreviated description of the whole situation. As a result the British foreign affairs, as well as the importance of immigrant waves on forming the new British culture, will be ignored. Furthermore, the youth phenomenon did not appear overnight as it might seem from reading the following lines. In fact as the teenagers gained more and more attention from the marketplace and the popular press, they also gained more confidence and their voice was heard. The focus here will be on the Teddy Boys youths; the nation's young generation, however, was much more diverse, ranging from middle and upper class youth (with their specific culture) to youngsters organised in clubs and societies. Consensus Since 1951 the Conservative Party won three subsequent elections. The political consensus between the parties Ã¢â¬Å"reflected a consensus in the nation. In the spectrum of political opinion from right to left, the majority of electors had moved towards the middle Ã¢â¬ ¦ leaving only minorities at the extremesÃ¢â¬ (Hill, 1986 p.7). This was due to a relative affluence of the working classes. They were better off, ate better food and watched more and more television. The Conservative party followed the political line of the Labour years, and, therefore, many ordinary citizens lost their interest in politics as well as their post-war collective enthusiasm (Hill, 1986 p.5). Furthermore, the consensus seemed to be reached between classes: the affluence of the lower classes made it seem like the class distinctions would eventually disappear (Hill, 1986 p.7). The consensus also reached the mass media. After the war the BBC set up a task of a Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëcultural mission'- elevating national standardsÃ¢â¬ (Caughie, 1986 p.194).* Television hours were limited to a few hours a day: an act of protectionism. The contrast between what the public wanted and what was BBC's policy of educational entertainment was to be challenged by the first private channel. The British cinema was also rigorously protected. Import quotas secured the showing of a certain number of British films. New films were also censored or banned (McKibbin, 1998 p.423-435). As MsKibbin argues, Ã¢â¬Å"contemporaries thought the cinema was a uniquely powerful medium. The country's elites were persistently worried about its potentially subversive effect on England's politics and moralityÃ¢â¬ (1998 p.455). The consensus reached in this area was set up to protect the citizens from what was then thought to be extremely dangerous: exposure to violence, sex and Americanisation. Contemporary studies supported these views: mass media supposedly had immediate effect (Street, 1997 p.62). The Horror of Rock'n'Roll The critics and academics saw the working class youth as the most endangered group. Thanks to the after war baby boom they were large in numbers, were often employed (We Are the Lambeth Boys) and earned more money. They are ground between the millstones of technocracy an democracy; society gives them almost limitless freedom of the sensation, but makes few demands on them Ã¢â¬â the use of their hands and of a fraction of their brains for forty hours a week. For the rest they are open to the entertainers and their efficient mass-equipment (Hoggart 1957 p. 249). Hoggart describes the Teddy Boys as frequent customers of milk bars, throwing one coin after another into the jukebox machine, reading sex and violence novels. These novels inspired the first British films targeting youth. With the emergence of the X certificate, some of the British studios concentrated on the horror and the sci-fi genres, the most famous being the Hammer studio. Although the cinema attendance numbers dropped drastically, due to the impact of television and shifting demographics (more and more people moving into new towns), the youth remained the largest cinema audience (McKibbin, 1998 p.420). The Hammer horror films were attractive for the youth audience (Street, 1997 p.76) as well as the Rock'n'Roll imports and their British versions (films with Cliff Richard and Tommy Steel). The horror and Rock'n'Roll films had their exploitational strategies in common. They were both taking advantages of certain novelties (scandals, wars) or/and their cinema audiences. These films usually had an inaccurate, sensational approach similar to that of the tabloid press. They, however, managed to express contemporary anxieties (nuclear threat, crisis of masculinity) (Street 1997, p.76-78). Films like Rock Around the Clock benefited from the Rock'n'Roll hype and from the controversy of the music; the assumed link between music and violence. Some Rock'n'Roll features were banned in local cinemas which only added to their popularity. Parents feared their children would turn into delinquents as the youth crime numbers were raising and the tabloid press blew the violent acts of a few into a nation-wide phenomenon (Hill, 1986 p.13-14). Famous filmmakers like Pressburger and Powell were clearly inspired by the horror genre in their film Peeping Tom. As well as some of the Hammer films, the film comments on the danger of science manipulation (Tom was a subject of scientific experiments of his fathers), but goes deeper into examination of the media exploitation itself, reflecting on contemporary anxieties (Ã¢â¬Å"fear of independent womenÃ¢â¬ (Street, 1997 p.78)) and the supposed Ã¢â¬Ëhigher morality' of the older generation (the elderly man, buying pornographic material in the kiosk). We might go further and suggest that the film is a call for realism. The studio in Peeping Tom produces popular murder stories, but when confronted with a real murder, we realize how remote these people are from the topics of their films. Similarly to Hitchcock's Psycho, Powell and Pressburger cast the main character with a good-looking young man Ã¢â¬â instead of a villain looking character. As Lowenstein argues, the social realism of Peeping Tom shows that these shifting social currents are shot through with anxieties that include viewers Ã¢â¬Ëlike you and me' as agonized participants in Ã¢â¬Ëlife here today'. (2000 p.229) Powell's and Presburger's interest in products of the mass culture is of the same sort as Warhol's interest in advertising, Kubrick's interest in popular genres in The Shining as well as Tarantino's obsession with pulp novels. Angry Young Men Hoggart's appeal was to preserve and enforce original Ã¢â¬Ëworking class' culture. This appeal came about at the same time as the new breed of writers, first just called Movement and later on called the Angry Young Men. They were often of working class origin, and wrote novels about working class youth or about young men fighting bureaucracy and the current social order (Kingsley Amis Ã¢â¬â Lucky Jim). These Ã¢â¬Ëangry young men' represented the part of society that was slowly waking up from the consensus dream. The British Empire was facing internal and external crisis (racial upheavals, Suez War). Problems like class distinctions and national identity re-emerged with greater strength. The writers showed discontent with both the traditional highbrow culture as well as the faceless mass culture. However it turned out, that the mass culture swallowed the new subculture soon afterwards*. The films based on the Angry Young Men novels differed from the exploit features in their respectable treatment of the young individual and investigating the causes of their revolt. They might have been inspired by some of the American youth films, like A Rebel Without a Cause: the film is not just another exploit; it examined psychological depths of delinquent behaviour (the influence of the family background). Also the documentary tradition of some of the filmmakers like Karel Reisz was important. Reisz carefully observed youngsters and disclosed that they are much more than young delinquents in We Are the Lambeth Boys. Braine's novel Room at the Top was turned into a successful film. The film's revolt is in its exposed sexuality. As Marwick suggests: Ã¢â¬Å"censorship was itself changing its views as to what was now acceptable to British audiencesÃ¢â¬ (1991 p.73-74). One of the illusions of the 50s was that the class distinction seemed to disappear (Hill, 1986 p.10-11). Clayton's film is a cruel awakening from the classless dream. The young man in the Room at the Top, puts up a tough fight to be accepted by the privileged class, only to realise that he had to pay huge prize for it. His lover dies in a car accident (suicide?). Joe Lampton hates the everyday routine and the oblivion of his own class, but also despises the class he is trying to join: their power and money are the only way to realise his potential. Sillitoe who wrote Saturday Night and Sunday Morning was of working class background. Reisz, who directed the subsequent film, already got a reputation with We Are the Lambeth Boys. Saturday Night and Sunday Morning is a fierce attack on the Ã¢â¬Ëgreat' values of the fifties: affluence of the working class, full employment and mass culture (television). In a way, Arthur is a representative of the disappearing working class culture with his spare time Ã¢â¬Ëactivities': fishing, drinking with friends and revolting. Arthur's parents and his colleague, Jack, represent the new emerging mass culture. They all watch television: Arthur's father to such an extent that he becomes totally absorbed by the medium. When Brenda is getting ready to go out, Jack suggests that one day they will be able to afford a TV set so that she can stay home. The disaffection ..of the young worker is directed against organized society and it bureaucrats, and against the more docile members of he working class, rather than against any identifiable enemy (Marwick, 1982 p.135). Arthur's culture is that of a revolt. He knows that there is something very wrong, but he is not sure how to fight it. Arthur says Ã¢â¬Ëno' to Hoggart's definition of working class youths: use your hands and a fraction of your brain and you can then be entertained. Arthur's Ã¢â¬Ëno' is also a Ã¢â¬Ëno' to the boom of the fifties. The youths were the first to realise the drawbacks, while the older generation was blinded by relative affluence and the pleasures of television. Arthur carries on with the fight until he agrees to marry Doreen. He then conforms to the mass culture of regular wages, consensus and television. His culture of revolt is lost to mass culture. The same can be said of the Angry Young Men movement: it later assimilated with the mass culture, since Ã¢â¬Å"media interest nearly always means immediate expropriation and assimilation by the mass cultureÃ¢â¬ (Taylor, 2000). Conclusion Hoggart saw the emergence of the mass culture as a serious threat to the authentic working class culture. He was one of the first critics who realised the richness of the original popular culture, but he also criticised the highbrow values imposed on the working class. He saw the horror and science fiction films as a sign of classless mass culture and Teddy Boys as a portent of losing one's culture to the universal culture. At the same time, however, a group of writers emerged that created and re-created original working class culture, giving young men the potential for cultural revolution. I have argued that the exploit culture targeting a young audience had a profound effect on the art of the next decade. The Pop art had it's inspiration in trivial entertainment and commercials. The Pop art (art for everyone) made no distinctions between popular and highbrow culture and freed art from all preconceptions. Furthermore, the open dealing with sexual matters in some of the films and novels, opened up the censorship and gave way to artistic freedom. The youth shook the power of the Ã¢â¬Å"highbrow minorityÃ¢â¬ that dictated the shaping of the whole culture and helped the existence of working class bands like the Beatles and the Rolling Stones. The youth also gained more attention from advertisers and this resulted in strictly teenage products Ã¢â¬â fashion, such as jeans and short skirts. The youth changed the whole nature of cinema production. From then on film producers became more aware of their audiences and the films targeted increasingly younger audiences. Also the age of the media planners, directors and producers decreased and the young filmmakers gained more power both in Britain (Anderson, Reizs) and Hollywood (Beatty, Hopper), only to loose it later on due to further commercialism of cinema during the 70s and 80s (Biskind,1998: Introduction). The strength of the youth influence is also in its diversity: it inspired Marxists, trash artists, nihilists, hedonists, feminists and the list could go on. Its main strength is that it enabled wide cultural and political discussions. Arthur was a portent of complex socio-cultural changes that started during the sixties and carry on until today.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Goldman Sachs Essays Goldman Sachs Essay Goldman Sachs Essay The Goldman Abacus Fund: Ethics You Can Count On Or Ethics That DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Add Up Set Up Imagine a physician is on the golf course with one of his colleagues, who happens to be a cardiologist. Somewhere on the back nine the cardiologist begins to tell the physician about one of his patients, a 52 year old man with blood pressure of 145/99, who is 40 lbs. overweight, chain smokes, and enjoys 7 to 8 martinis a day. In spite of medications, in the words of the cardiologist, the patient is Ã¢â¬Å"a ticking time bomb. The first physician asks for his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s patientÃ¢â¬â¢s personal information, and after the golf game, goes to see his State farm agent, where he takes out a 1 million dollar life insurance policy on the Ã¢â¬Ëtime bombÃ¢â¬ guy. Are the actions of the physician ethical? Taking out such a policy is of course illegal, as the doctor does not have what is known as an insurable interest. But assuming the doctor took no steps to encourage th e manÃ¢â¬â¢s death, under the theory of rational egoism his actions would be justified. Furthermore, as macabre as the doctor might seem in betting on the death of another human being, Sternberg would consider his actions to be within the realm of ordinary decency. In 2007, amid historic economic development, a scenario emerged similar to the one just described. Although the players and events were quite different, the same philosophical question was raised: is it ethical to benefit from someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. Living in a society riddled with envy and resentment, many onlookers thought so. Two parties in particular did not. They were John Paulson Co. , a hedge fund company established in 1994, and Goldman Sachs Co. a global investment banking and securities firm founded in 1869. The Events The story has its beginnings in 2005 when 49 year old Paulson, a man with a Wall Street reputation of mediocrity, hired an out of work analyst, Paolo Pellegrini. PellegriniÃ¢â¬â¢s job was to crunch numbers on a befuddling trend which Ã¢â¬Å"everyoneÃ¢â¬ seemed to be maki ng money on except Paulson (Zuckerman). After a yearÃ¢â¬â¢s worth of late nights, Pellegrini determined that not only were housing prices soaring independently of interest rates and well beyond the pace of inflation, but that when the bubble did pop, it would send home prices down more than 40%. : When Pellegrini showed his charts and figures, Paulson couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe his eyes. Finally the housing market boom made sense to him. What also made sense to him was the marketÃ¢â¬â¢s inevitable crash. Paulson had to find a way to make money on this prediction. Initially Paulson and Co. bought large lots of credit default swaps, which in effect were insurance policies against Ã¢â¬Å"riskyÃ¢â¬ subprime mortgage debt (Zuckerman). Paulson was paying up to an 8% premium to guarantee against the default of mortgages he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even own. Paulson and Co. spent months accumulating these mortgage insurance policies before deciding that the process was too slow. Paulson needed another way to short the housing market, preferably one with great leverage. A collateralized debt obligation seemed to be the perfect means to PaulsonÃ¢â¬â¢s desired end. To understand how Paulson was able to make a $15 billion profit on his market prediction, a closer look at the 3 main financial instruments used is needed. Residential Mortgage Backed Securities (RMBS), Collateralized Debt Obligations, and Credit Default Swaps are all financial instruments used by both commercial and investment banks. RBMSs are bonds which are backed by a pool of residential mortgages. These bonds have different ratings based on the default risk of the varied prime and subprime mortgages. Even though the initiating bank may continue to service the loan to the homeowner, the mortgage itself will likely end up being sold again and again, often being pooled as an asset base to compose a RMBS. Collateralized Debt Obligations are securities collateralized by debt. Basically, a CDO is where a financial institution bundles a bunch of debt and sells it as a package to other financial institutions (Stephen D. Simpson). CDOs commonly take RMBSs a step further by packaging a series of them into one portfolio. The CDO collects cash from the pool of bonds it contains, and from this cash, distributes interest and principle payments to the CDOÃ¢â¬â¢s investors. If the underlying securities fail (as in the case of a defaulted subprime mortgage), the investors lose the money they put into the CDO. In the case of the Goldman Sachs Abacus deal, rather than a cash-based CDO, a synthetic CDO was packaged. A synthetic CDO differs from a CDO in that it does not own the underlying asset (portfolio of bonds). Instead it uses credit default swaps to mimic the risk associated with the assets (bonds) listed in the portfolio. A credit default swap is a means to achieve risk transfer from the bond holder to another party. When a bond holder buys a CDS, he is buying insurance against the bond defaulting, by paying a series of premiums to the CDS seller. In the event of default, the CDS seller must compensate the bond holder with the face value of the bond. Back in 2006, these vehicles were viewed as free money. Many economists and banking institutions believed the U. S. had reached a period of indefinite, sustained growth, meaning the likelihood of mortgage default, even at the subprime level, was low. The top banks, with presumably the most savvy, sophisticated money managers in the world, took advantage of this by heavily participating in these high leverage instruments. In 2005, senior traders from Bear Sterns to Goldman Sachs shared the sentiment that the housing market was solid and in no danger of collapse. By December of 2006 however, though not going public with its stance, Goldman decidedly turned bearish on the mortgage industry. Early in 2007, Paulson approach Goldman requesting that they structure a CDO with (allegedly) the inclusion of 123 hand-picked RBMSs which Paulson believed to be most likely to default (Quinn). He also asked Goldman to help him find another party who would take the other side of his desired market position. Goldman agreed, was paid $15m in fees by Paulson and Co. , and Abacus was born. Goldman assigned 29 year old a junior bond trader named Fabrice Tourre with managing and promoting Abacus to investors. Tourre approached IKB Deutsche Industriebank, who expressed interest only if a third party choose the RMBS. As such, Goldman enlisted ACA management to choose the RMBS which would compose Abacus. At this point, Tourre allegedly led ACA to believe that Paulson was going to invest $200M into Abacus. Thinking this, ACA also directly invested $42m into Abacus and took on the role of insuring $909M worth of credit default swaps; (unknown to ACA, Paulson was on the other side). With a third party (ACA) now selecting the RMBS, Tourre convinced IKB to invest $150M into Abacus. Ultimately these were the events which led the SEC to file charges against Goldman on April 16, 2010. The Outcome A year after Abacus was assembled and marketed, PaulsonÃ¢â¬â¢s prediction came true. 99% of the CDO had been downgraded, rocketing the value of the credit default swaps he bought. John Paulson netted $1bn. n what Gregory Zuckerman of the Wall Street Journal would call Ã¢â¬Å"the perfect trade. Ã¢â¬ IKB lost nearly its entire investment of $150M. ACA Management lost $841M. When the dust settled, eyebrows were raised and eventually charges were filed. Goldman was charged with fraud in structuring and marketing of a CDO which was secretly intended to fail. The fraud charge alleged that Goldman allo wed Paulson to strongly influence ACA in selecting the RMBS which would make up Abacus. The charge also alleges that ACA was deceived to think that Paulson had an interest in the CDOÃ¢â¬â¢s success rather than failure. Paulson was not charged and has maintained that ACA Ã¢â¬Å"had sole authority over the selection of RMBS in the CDO (Quinn). The Facts ACA Management was both the portfolio selector and the largest investor to Abacus. Owned by one of the largest banks in Europe, ABN Amro, ACA management specialized in CDOs and portfolio selection. Put another way, they knew exactly what they were getting into, they just happened to be wrong. Paulson had been unsuccessfully Ã¢â¬Å"betting againstÃ¢â¬ the housing markets since 2005. During 2006-2007 insurance against defaulting mortgages (CDS) became extremely cheap. During the period, many banks were selling CDS to collect what they saw as low risk insurance premiums. ACA was to collect $1,545,300 in premiums per year through insuring Abacus. PaulsonÃ¢â¬â¢s role in Abacus was not made clear to investors, but the anonymity he maintained is both legal and commonplace on Wall Street. All the players at the table were among the most sophisticated banking institutions in the world, which could not be better equipped with experts to perform the due diligence of investigating a prospective investment. Ethical Analysis In a 2009 Rolling Stone article, Matt Taibbi accused Goldman Sachs of being Ã¢â¬Å"a great vampire squid wrapped around the face of humanity,Ã¢â¬ Goldman he states, was the cause of the housing bubble through creation and use of financial instruments such as CDOs and CDSs (TAIBBI). The dramatic description hardly instills an image of ethical behavior. But is it true? Taibbi has it backwards. The Housing and Community Development Acts of 1974, 1982, and 1987 had been making mortgages easier to obtain long before the 1994 invention of Credit Default Swaps, (although the first CDO was issued by Drexel Burnham Lambert in 1987) (Frej). It is because we live in a society where there exists too much envy and resentment that media figures such as Matt Taibbi point the finger at those who succeed, and scream Ã¢â¬Å"hey, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not fair! Ã¢â¬ When people defaulted on their home mortgages, it was not because of Paulson or anyone else making money. It was because of their own greed and desire. People acted like children giving in to the impulse to grab the Ã¢â¬Å"shiny objectÃ¢â¬ i. e. large mortgage, when in fact it was their responsibility to perform due diligence and conclude whether or not such mortgages were financially feasible. Was it unethical for Goldman/Paulson to benefit by means of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ demise? Just as in the opening example of the patient who was certain to die, so too were historical numbers of mortgages destined for foreclosure. And while wealth creation is not a zero sum game, equity trading often is; every buyer needs a seller. ACA management and IKB were trying to profit by knowingly taking risks. They lost. For Goldman and John Paulson, it was Ã¢â¬Å"just business. Ã¢â¬ There were no intentions beyond profit maximizing, nor did they act in any unfair or unethical way. Goldman and Paulson did their best to maximize the long term value for their investors in a business designed around risk. In the end it was Paulson and CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s countless hours of research and study which led them to the decisions they made. Had anyone else done the same, they likely would have gained similar compensation. This would be in line with SternbergÃ¢â¬â¢s principle of distributive justice. Conclusion There has been recent talk from the likes of Warren Buffet to Barack Obama about the evils of complex financial instruments. They say CDOs and CSOs should be banned or at least controlled with more regulation. This is a much too simple solution to the problem of financial responsibility. If CDOs and CSOs get banned, another instrument with the same potential effect (good or bad), will be right around the corner. Living in a period of record government hand-outs, it is no wonder people think everything either is free or obtainable with minimal effort i. e. mortgages. Financial responsibility must be taught at an early age, whether at home or at school. The path away from any future financial crisis will be seen when people have an understanding of money and make gains through distributive justice.